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Des Juifs Dans La Collaboration

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Une terre Promise ? (1941-1944)

Telecharger pdf Une terre Promise ? (1941-1944)

Avril 1941. Les notables du Consistoire israélite proposent au Commissariat général aux questions juives de fournir une main-d\'oeuvre immigrée pour le ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: Editions L\'Harmattan
  • ISBN: 2140154053
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 264
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 823
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Détails: Avril 1941. Les notables du Consistoire israélite proposent au Commissariat général aux questions juives de fournir une main-d'oeuvre immigrée pour le "Retour à la terre". Les nazis vont s'intéresser vivement à ce projet. Quelques centaines de "petits tailleurs" juifs polonais seront expédiés dans les Ardennes dès novembre 1941. On leur a promis en échange de leur engagement, la liberté, un travail libre et la sauvegarde de leur famille. Tous seront soumis à l'état de forçat avant d'être raflés dans les exploitations agricoles en janvier 1944, ramenés à Drancy et déportés à Auschwitz. en 1941, les Ardennes avaient été présentées comme une terre promise à une population immigrée affolée. Cette aventure se terminera comme un drame ordinaire, comparable à celui vécu par l'ensemble des Juifs immigrés de Paris.


Xavier Vallat (1891-1972)

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Laurent Joly, professeur agrégé d'histoire. Allocataire au centre d'histoire sociale du XXo siècle de Paris 1, prépare une thèse de doctorat sur le Co ...

  • L'auteur : Laurent Joly
  • Editeur: Grasset
  • ISBN: 2246783755
  • Genre: Literary Collections
  • Nombre de pages: 432
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1749
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Détails: Laurent Joly, professeur agrégé d'histoire. Allocataire au centre d'histoire sociale du XXo siècle de Paris 1, prépare une thèse de doctorat sur le Commissariat général aux questions juives sous la direction du professeur Pascal Ory. Xavier Vallat est une figure emblématique de l'antisémitisme français et de la persécution des Juifs sous Vichy. Héraut des milieux anciens combattants de la droite catholique à la Chambre des députés pendant l'entre-deux-guerres, il fit scandale le 6 juin 1936 lorsque, s'adressant à Léon Blum du haut de la tribune parlementaire, il lança : « Pour la première fois ce vieux pays gallo-romain va être dirigé par un Juif ». Il devint dès lors le champion des milieux antisémites français, et, en juillet 1940, il se rallia avec enthousiasme au maréchal Pétain. En mars 1941, Xavier Vallat prit la direction du Commissariat Général aux Questions Juives. Pendant un an, il s'acquitta de ses fonctions avec une ferveur fanatique, donnant à la France une législation anti-juive complète et systématique, il ordonna un recensement des Juifs en zone libre et tenta de faire adopter un nouveau Statut des Juifs, encore plus sévère que la législation nazie. Après son départ du Commissariat, il resta jusqu'au bout fidèle au régime et remplaça, en juin 1944, Philippe Henriot (assassiné par la résistance), au micro de la radiodiffusion nationale. En 1947, son procès en Haute Cour fit sensation : Xavier Vallat assuma pleinement son action sous l'Occupation, et alla même jusqu'à utiliser ses convictions antisémites comme stratégie de défense. Ayant sauvé de justesse sa tête, il devint le compagnon de cellule de Charles Maurras. Après sa sortie de prison, il termina sa carrière comme éditorialiste vedette de l'organe nationaliste Aspect de la France, et s'illustra une dernière fois en novembre 1967 en reprenant à son compte - tout en les dévoyant - les propos du général de Gaulle sur les Juifs « peuple d'élite, sûr de lui-même et dominateur ». En suivant tout au long du siècle l'itinéraire politique et intellectuel de Xavier Vallat, c'est toute une tradition politique de la France, catholique et antisémite, que ce livre fait revivre et comprendre.


Fighters in the Shadows

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The story of the French Resistance is central to French identity, but it is a story built on myths. 'La Rsistance franaise' was not simply a national effor ...

  • L'auteur : Robert Gildea
  • Editeur: Faber & Faber
  • ISBN: 0571280358
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 352
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1879
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Détails: The story of the French Resistance is central to French identity, but it is a story built on myths. 'La Rsistance franaise' was not simply a national effort to free the country from German occupation, but a wider struggle, filled with conflicts and division. It included Spanish republicans, Italian and even German anti-Nazis. The defence against the Holocaust brought in Jewish resisters and Christian rescuers. It involved a civil war for the French Empire in Africa and the Near East. The movement itself was split between those on the far right and the far left, fighting for very different visions of the world. Robert Gildea returns to the testimonies of the resisters themselves, asking who they were, what they believed in and what compelled them to take the terrible risks they did. He brings to the fore the woman resisters, who history neglected. By looking again at the constructions and interplay of the myths surrounding the resistance, Gildea builds a vivid, gripping and entirely new account of one of the most compelling narratives of the Second World War.


The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews

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Drawing on the extensive memoir literature of Jews who survived the Nazi period in France, Zuccotti paints a collective portrait of the victims, of those w ...

  • L'auteur : Susan Zuccotti
  • Editeur: Plunkett Lake Press
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: N.A
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1846
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Détails: Drawing on the extensive memoir literature of Jews who survived the Nazi period in France, Zuccotti paints a collective portrait of the victims, of those who tried to help them, of those who persecuted them and of the vast majority of French people who looked the other way. Zuccotti concludes that “benign neglect, vague goodwill, and, occasionally, active support” helped three-quarters of French Jews survive, while almost half of foreign-born Jews living under Nazi occupation or in the Vichy government “free” zone were sent to extermination camps with the active help of the French authorities. “Valuable and lucid. [...] Susan Zucccotti's book is admirable in many important ways.” — Patrice Higonnet, New York Times Book Review “Ms. Zuccotti combines vivid narrative with the most scrupulous historical accuracy. It is good to be able to enter the helpful gestures of many French individuals into the scales against the unspeakable actions of many Vichy officials and zealots.” — Robert O. Paxton, Mellon Professor of the Social Sciences, Columbia University, author ofVichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944 “Dr. Zuccotti’s book, admirably balanced and free of bias, is a rich and compassionate study of the plight of Jews in France during World War II.” — Léon Poliakov, Honorary Director of Research, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) “In a vividly narrated reexamination of the historical record, Zuccotti tells the horrifying story of the fate of French Jews at the hands of the Nazis and their Vichy collaborators. [...] A balanced yet heartrending contribution to Holocaust literature.” —Kirkus Review “Zuccotti forces us to rethink the French response to the Holocaust in this challenging book” — Publishers Weekly “By use of precise examples, Zuccotti is able to illustrate the human side and contribute to a new understanding of [the fate of France’s Jewish population during World War II]” — American Historical Review “Ms. Zuccotti finds France to be a nation which, in time of crisis, showed itself to be made up of a handful of villains, a few magnificent heroes and a vast assortment of the cowardly, the apathetic and the self-serving.” — Forward “Zuccotti presents the most comprehensive account of the Holocaust in France available to the English reader.” — Paula Hyman, Yale University, Journal of Interdisciplinary History “An excellent narrative.” — Choice, American Library Association “Zuccotti has made a valuable contribution to our understanding of the Holocaust in France. Above all, she has illuminated in fascinating detail the extraordinary range of organizational and individual responses.” — Journal of Modern History “Zuccotti’s account investigates the popular responses of the French to the measures offered and implemented by [Vichy] officials... an essential tool for gaining a more complete understanding of Vichy France and the Holocaust” — Anne Higgins,University of Vermont History Review “This is an important work of 20th-century history. It is admirably researched, but remains lucid. It is, of necessity, sometimes harrowing, but illuminates moments of selfless heroism. Above all, it details a period of French history which has for too long been known to foreigners in only the broadest outlines... This is a valuable book deserving a wide readership.” — Morning Star “[Zuccotti’s] book is replete with personal histories and memories, culled from a very wide reading in the growing library of autobiographies, memoirs, and monographs dealing with this period.” — Tony Judt, New York Review of Books


The Survival of the Jews in France, 1940 - 44

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Between the French defeat in 1940 and liberation in 1944, the Nazis killed almost 80,000 of France's Jews, both French and foreign. Since that time, this t ...

  • L'auteur : Jacques Semelin
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190057947
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 356
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 747
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Détails: Between the French defeat in 1940 and liberation in 1944, the Nazis killed almost 80,000 of France's Jews, both French and foreign. Since that time, this tragedy has been well-documented. But there are other stories hidden within it-ones neglected by historians. In fact, 75% of France's Jews escaped the extermination, while 45% of the Jews of Belgium perished, and in the Netherlands only 20% survived. The Nazis were determined to destroy the Jews across Europe, and the Vichy regime collaborated in their deportation from France. So what is the meaning of this French exception? Jacques Semelin sheds light on this 'French enigma', painting a radically unfamiliar view of occupied France. His is a rich, even-handed portrait of a complex and changing society, one where helping and informing on one's neighbours went hand in hand; and where small gestures of solidarity sat comfortably with anti-Semitism. Without shying away from the horror of the Holocaust's crimes, this seminal work adds a fresh perspective to our history of the Second World War.


The Jews of Modern France

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The Jews of Modern France explores the endlessly complex encounter of France and its Jews from just before the Revolution to the eve of the twenty-first ce ...

  • L'auteur : Paula E. Hyman
  • Editeur: Univ of California Press
  • ISBN: 9780520919297
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 278
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 914
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Détails: The Jews of Modern France explores the endlessly complex encounter of France and its Jews from just before the Revolution to the eve of the twenty-first century. In the late eighteenth century, some forty thousand Jews lived in scattered communities on the peripheries of the French state, not considered French by others or by themselves. Two hundred years later, in 1989, France celebrated the anniversary of the Revolution with the largest, most vital Jewish population in western and central Europe. Paula Hyman looks closely at the period that began when France's Jews were offered citizenship during the Revolution. She shows how they and succeeding generations embraced the opportunities of integration and acculturation, redefined their identities, adapted their Judaism to the pragmatic and ideological demands of the time, and participated fully in French culture and politics. Within this same period, Jews in France fell victim to a secular political antisemitism that mocked the gains of emancipation, culminating first in the Dreyfus Affair and later in the murder of one-fourth of them in the Holocaust. Yet up to the present day, through successive waves of immigration, Jews have asserted the compatibility of their French identity with various versions of Jewish particularity, including Zionism. This remarkable view in microcosm of the modern Jewish experience will interest general readers and scholars alike.


The Nazi Holocaust. Part 6: The Victims of the Holocaust

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Diese Reihe bietet erstmals eine Basissammlung von Faksimiles englischsprachiger historischer Artikel zu allen Aspekten der Vernichtung der europäischen J ...

  • L'auteur : Michael Robert Marrus
  • Editeur: Walter de Gruyter
  • ISBN: 311096872X
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 709
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1341
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Détails: Diese Reihe bietet erstmals eine Basissammlung von Faksimiles englischsprachiger historischer Artikel zu allen Aspekten der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. Die große Anzahl von annähernd 300 Aufsätzen aus 84 Zeitschriften und Sammlungen ermöglicht den Lesern, sich einen Überblick über diesen Themenkomplex zu verschaffen. Die Reihe beginnt mit einem Rückblick auf die Wurzeln des Antisemitismus und einer Darstellung der verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Methoden zur Erforschung des Holocaust. Die Reihe endet mit der Dokumentation der Befreiung der Konzentrationslager und mit Aufsätzen zu den Kriegsverbrecherprozessen. Der Erscheinungszeitraum umfasst die Jahre 1950 bis 1987, zu den Verfassern gehören beispielsweise Jakob Katz, Saul Friedländer, Eberhard Jäckel, Bruno Bettelheim und Herbert A. Strauss.


Vichy dans la «solution finale»

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Si, depuis une trentaine d'années, la persécution des juifs sous l'Occupation constitue un enjeu mémoriel important de la société française, il n'exi ...

  • L'auteur : Laurent Joly
  • Editeur: Grasset
  • ISBN: 2246638496
  • Genre: Literary Collections
  • Nombre de pages: 1024
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1261
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Détails: Si, depuis une trentaine d'années, la persécution des juifs sous l'Occupation constitue un enjeu mémoriel important de la société française, il n'existe que très peu d'ouvrages analysant la politique antisémite du régime de Vichy. Se fondant sur une exploitation minutieuse de toutes les archives publiques disponibles, ayant mis au jour une série de fonds jusqu'alors inédits (archives judiciaires de la Libération, dossiers du Conseil d'État ou de la préfecture de Police de Paris, dossiers personnels de carrière des agents du commissariat général aux Questions juives, etc.) et découvert plusieurs archives familiales (dont l'exceptionnel fonds Xavier Vallat), Laurent Joly renouvelle considérablement le sujet. La création du CGQJ en mars 1941, à la demande des autorités occupantes, constitue un tournant décisif. Le vice-président du Conseil l'amiral Darlan et le premier commissaire général aux Questions juives Xavier Vallat interprètent à leur façon ce projet en affirmant ouvertement leur désir de « refouler » les juifs étrangers, polonais et autres, qui, selon les mots de Vallat, « sont venus en véritables légions sur notre pays, pour son plus grand malheur ». Dorénavant, la politique antijuive de l'État français dépend intimement de la politique nazie, dans un complexe et ambigu jeu à trois - les orientations du gouvernement de Vichy, la stratégie des autorités occupantes et les ambitions propres au CGQJ -, qui est ici analysé. Jusqu'en décembre 1941, le commissariat général aux Questions juives s'affirme comme un « véritable ministère » et obtient la promulgation d'un nombre impressionnant de lois et de décrets antisémites. À partir de l'hiver 1941-1942 puis définitivement après la rafle du Vel' d'Hiv, le CGQJ se voit marginalisé dans la conduite de la politique antijuive, désormais négociée au plus haut niveau. Son influence législative et politique est pratiquement réduite à néant. L'histoire au quotidien du CGQJ n'avait jamais été faite. Combien cette administration exceptionnelle compta-t-elle d'employés ? Qui étaient-ils ? D'où venaient-ils ? Comment se représentaient-ils leur activité professionnelle ? Quels ont été les résultats et les conséquences humaines de leur politique ? Ayant plus particulièrement étudié le parcours des 180 cadres du CGQJ, Laurent Joly analyse le profil sociologique, la mentalité et les méthodes de travail de tous ces bureaucrates et exécuteurs de la politique antijuive de Vichy.


Pétain's Jewish Children

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Pétain's Jewish Children examines the nature of the relationship between the Vichy regime and its Jewish citizens in the period 1940 to 1942. Previous stu ...

  • L'auteur : Daniel Lee
  • Editeur: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191016942
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 304
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 517
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Détails: Pétain's Jewish Children examines the nature of the relationship between the Vichy regime and its Jewish citizens in the period 1940 to 1942. Previous studies have generally viewed the experiences of French Jewry during the Second World War through the lenses of persecution, resistance, or rescue; an approach which has had the unintended effect of stripping Jewish actors of their agency. This volume, however, draws attention to the specific category of French Jewish youth which reveals significant exceptions to Vichy's antisemitic policies, wherein the regime's desire for a reinvigorated youth and the rebirth of the nation took precedence over its racial laws. While Jews were becoming marginalised from the civil service and liberal professions, the New Order did not seek to exclude young French Jews from participating in a series of youth projects that aimed to rebuild France in the aftermath of its defeat to Germany. For example, the Jewish scouts' emphasis on manual work and a return to the land ensured that it was looked upon favourably by Vichy, who rewarded the scouts financially. Similarly, young French Jews were called up to take part in the Chantiers de la Jeunesse, Vichy's alternative to compulsory military service. In considering the roles of some of Vichy's lesser known ministers with responsibilities for youth, for whom antisemitism was not a priority, Pétain's Jewish Children illuminates the tensions between Vichy's ambition for national regeneration and its racial policies, rendering any simple account of its antisemitism misleading. While hindsight may point to the contrary, this volume shows that the emergence of the new regime did not signal the beginning of the end for French Jewry. In Vichy's first two years, while ambiguity reigned, possibilities to integrate and participate with the New Order endured and Jews were constantly presented with new avenues to probe and explore. After this point, the drastic policy changes fuelled by Prime Minister Pierre Laval and the head of Vichy Police, René Bousquet, coupled with the total occupation of France by German forces in November 1942, reduced the possibilities for coexistence almost to nothing.


Remembering for the Future

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Focused on 'The Holocaust in an Age of Genocide', Remembering for the Future brings together the work of nearly 200 scholars from more than 30 countries an ...

  • L'auteur : J. Roth,E. Maxwell
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 1349660191
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 2256
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1495
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Détails: Focused on 'The Holocaust in an Age of Genocide', Remembering for the Future brings together the work of nearly 200 scholars from more than 30 countries and features cutting-edge scholarship across a range of disciplines, amounting to the most extensive and powerful reassessment of the Holocaust ever undertaken. In addition to its international scope, the project emphasizes that varied disciplinary perspectives are needed to analyze and to check the genocidal forces that have made the Twentieth century so deadly. Historians and ethicists, psychologists and literary scholars, political scientists and theologians, sociologists and philosophers - all of these, and more, bring their expertise to bear on the Holocaust and genocide. Their contributions show the new discoveries that are being made and the distinctive approaches that are being developed in the study of genocide, focusing both on archival and oral evidence, and on the religious and cultural representation of the Holocaust.


Gray Zones

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Few essays about the Holocaust are better known or more important than Primo Levi’s reflections on what he called “the gray zone,” a reality in which ...

  • L'auteur : Jonathan Petropoulos,John Roth
  • Editeur: Berghahn Books
  • ISBN: 1782382011
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 440
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1114
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Détails: Few essays about the Holocaust are better known or more important than Primo Levi’s reflections on what he called “the gray zone,” a reality in which moral ambiguity and compromise were pronounced. In this volume accomplished Holocaust scholars, among them Raul Hilberg, Gerhard L. Weinberg, Christopher Browning, Peter Hayes, and Lynn Rapaport, explore the terrain that Levi identified. Together they bring a necessary interdisciplinary focus to bear on timely and often controversial topics in cutting-edge Holocaust studies that range from historical analysis to popular culture. While each essay utilizes a particular methodology and argues for its own thesis, the volume as a whole advances the claim that the more we learn about the Holocaust, the more complex that event turns out to be. Only if ambiguities and compromises in the Holocaust and its aftermath are identified, explored, and at times allowed to remain--lest resolution deceive us--will our awareness of the Holocaust and its implications be as full as possible.


The Disarmament of Hatred

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Documenting an audacious Franco-German movement for moral disarmament, instigated in 1921 by war veteran and French Catholic politician Marc Sangnier, in t ...

  • L'auteur : G. Barry
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 023037333X
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 293
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 744
  • Telecharger: 744
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Détails: Documenting an audacious Franco-German movement for moral disarmament, instigated in 1921 by war veteran and French Catholic politician Marc Sangnier, in this transnational study Gearóid Barry examines the European resonance of Sangnier's Peace Congresses and their political and religious ecumenism within France in the era of two World Wars.


Commemorating the Holocaust

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Commemorating the Holocaust reveals how and why the Holocaust came to play a prominent role in French and Italian political culture in the period after the ...

  • L'auteur : Rebecca Clifford
  • Editeur: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191669288
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 304
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 607
  • Telecharger: 607
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Détails: Commemorating the Holocaust reveals how and why the Holocaust came to play a prominent role in French and Italian political culture in the period after the end of the Cold War. By charting the development of official, national Holocaust commemorations in France and Italy, Rebecca Clifford explains why the wartime persecution of Jews, a topic ignored or marginalized in political discourse through much of the Cold War period, came to be a subject of intense and often controversial debate in the 1990s and 2000s. How and why were official Holocaust commemorations created? Why did the drive for states to 'remember' their roles in the persecution of Jewish populations accelerate only after the collapse of the Cold War? Who pressed for these commemorations, and what motivated their activism? To what extent was the discourse surrounding national Holocaust commemorations really about the genocide at all? Commemorating the Holocaust explores these key questions, challenging commonly-held assumptions about the origins of and players involved in the creation of Holocaust memorial days. Clifford draws conclusions that shed light both on the state of Holocaust memory in France and Italy, and more broadly on the collective memory of World War II in contemporary Europe.


Neutralizing Memory

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This exploration of the texture of contemporary Polish-Jewish relations has its origins in the author's haunting experience of growing up Polish and Jewish ...

  • L'auteur : Iwona Irwin-Zarecka
  • Editeur: Transaction Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781412829526
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Nombre de pages: 220
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 321
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Détails: This exploration of the texture of contemporary Polish-Jewish relations has its origins in the author's haunting experience of growing up Polish and Jewish in Warsaw in the 1960s. It began with questions about silence: the silence of Jewish parents and the silence of once-Jewish towns, the silence in Auschwitz and the silence about anti-Semitism. But when the author went to Europe in 1983 to work on the project that resulted in this book, Poland was in the midst of preparation for a grand commemoration of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. From all parts of the political spectrum came calls to remember and to honor Polish Jews, to reexamine and to reassess the past. In effect, Poland was inviting the Jew into its household of memories. What did such an invitation mean? And what accounted for the timing? This vividly written account of the people, the politics, the goals, and the obstacles behind words of remembrance in Poland is an example of cultural sociology at its best. The author draws on a combination of textual readings, interviews, and historical analyses. The book's main strength, is its continuous dialogue between analyst and insider, between knowledge and experience. Into a field where cognitive and emotional imprints make all the difference, the author brings unique appreciation of the power they hold; she has shared them. Into a field where partisanship -so often passes for objectivity, she brings openly stated commitment. And into a field where particularism of concerns so often deadlocks understanding, she brings much-needed broadening of vision. Students of modern Jewish history will find this volume an informative analysis of the past and present roles assigned to the Jew in Poland. Students of contemporary Poland will find new perspectives on its struggles for a democratic society. And for those concerned with how one reconciles one's self and one's history, Neutralizing Memory offers an empirically based reflection on the construction and deconstruction of remembrance.


Suzanne's Children

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One of the untold stories of the Holocaust—the nail-biting drama of Suzanne Spaak, who risked and gave her life to save hundreds of Jewish children from ...

  • L'auteur : Anne Nelson
  • Editeur: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1501105345
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 336
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1463
  • Telecharger: 1463
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Détails: One of the untold stories of the Holocaust—the nail-biting drama of Suzanne Spaak, who risked and gave her life to save hundreds of Jewish children from deportation from Nazi Paris to Auschwitz “vividly dramatizes the stakes of acting morally in a time of brutality” (The Wall Street Journal). Suzanne Spaak was born into the Belgian Catholic elite and married into the country’s leading political family. Her brother-in-law was the Foreign Minister and her husband Claude was a playwright and patron of the painter Renée Magritte. In Paris in the late 1930s her friendship with a Polish Jewish refugee led her to her life’s purpose. When France fell and the Nazis occupied Paris, she joined the Resistance. She used her fortune and social status to enlist allies among wealthy Parisians and church groups. Then, under the eyes of the Gestapo, Suzanne and women from the Jewish and Christian resistance groups “kidnapped” hundreds of Jewish children to save them from the gas chambers. Suzanne’s Children is the “dogged…page-turning account” (Kirkus Reviews) of this incredible story of courage in the face of evil. “Anne Nelson is superb at showing the upheavals in Europe since WWI through vivid, illuminating details…and she also masterfully describes the incremental changes in the Jews’ plight under the Occupation” (Booklist). It was during the final year of the Occupation when Suzanne was caught in the Gestapo dragnet that was pursuing a Soviet agent she had aided. She was executed shortly before the liberation of Paris. Suzanne Spaak is honored in Israel as one of the Righteous Among Nations. Nelson’s “heartfelt story is almost a model for how popular history should be written; it will satisfy lovers of history, Jewish history in particular” (Library Journal).


La pensée postnazie

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Une grande partie de l’histoire de la pensée occidentale s’est effondrée lors de l’ouverture des camps d’extermination nazis en 1945. La Raison o ...

  • L'auteur : Michel Onfray
  • Editeur: Grasset
  • ISBN: 2246855667
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 464
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 704
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Détails: Une grande partie de l’histoire de la pensée occidentale s’est effondrée lors de l’ouverture des camps d’extermination nazis en 1945. La Raison occidentale semblait progresser depuis sa première formulation grecque en passant par la Raison renaissante, la Raison cartésienne, la Raison pure kantienne, la Raison des Lumières. Comment a-t-elle pu déboucher sur l’embrasement de l’Europe par le national-socialisme ? Hannah Arendt a pensé ce phénomène avec ses analyses sur le totalitarisme dont le projet est de créer des hommes superflus. Cette jeune femme juive, qui fut l’élève de Heidegger dont le nazisme fut incontestable, a également été sa maîtresse. Le totalitarisme ne pouvait donc rester une énigme pour elle qui en fit l’analyse. Au-delà du XX° siècle, elle a également pensé la Révolution française, égalitaire, matrice des totalitarismes, qu’elle oppose à la révolution américaine, libertaire et productrice de démocratie. Elle a également examiné ce qui accompagnait la crise de la culture, l’infantilisation des adultes, la science sans conscience, la crise de l’éducation. Hans Jonas a lui aussi pensé le monde postnazi en constatant que la planète était en danger, que les biotechnologies mettaient l’humain en péril, qu’il fallait activer un militantisme appuyé sur la peur pour conscientiser les masses au nom d’un principe d’espérance. L’écologie lui doit beaucoup. Gunther Anders enfin, un temps le mari d’Hannah Arendt, a pensé la bombe atomique, le jazz, la télévision, la photographie, les machines, la propagande, la radio, les médias, la pollution, la technologie appliquée au corps, l’idéologie mortifère répandue par le capitalisme, avant de conclure à l’obsolescence programmée de l’homme. Tous trois ont pensé le nihilisme qui a suivi le nazisme. Leur judaïsme a lié l’apocalypse au principe espérance, non sans imaginer que la violence ne saurait être évitée.


The Extreme Right in France, 1789 to the Present

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The Extreme Right in France, 1789 to the Present surveys the history of a fascinating but contentious political and intellectual tradition. Since 1789 the ...

  • L'auteur : Peter Davies
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134552963
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 224
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1663
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Détails: The Extreme Right in France, 1789 to the Present surveys the history of a fascinating but contentious political and intellectual tradition. Since 1789 the far right has been an important factor in French political life and in different eras has taken on a range of guises including traditionalism, ultra-royalism, radical nationalism, anti-Semitism and fascism. This book is structured around the five main phases of extreme right activity, and the author explores key questions about each: * Counter-revolution - what was the legacy of Joseph de Maistre's writings? * Anti-Third Republic protest - how was the 'new right' of the 1880s and 1890s different from the 'old right' of previous decades? * Inter-war fascism - how should we characterise the phenomenon of fascisme française? * Vichy - why did Pétain and Laval collaborate with the Nazis? * The Post-war far right - what is the relationship between Poujadism, Algérie Française and Le Pen's FN?


Holding On and Holding Out

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Examining the diary as a particular form of expression, Holding On and Holding Out provides unique insight into the experiences of Jews in France during th ...

  • L'auteur : Anne Freadman
  • Editeur: University of Toronto Press
  • ISBN: 1487536445
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 280
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 652
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Détails: Examining the diary as a particular form of expression, Holding On and Holding Out provides unique insight into the experiences of Jews in France during the Second World War. Unlike memoirs and autobiographies that reconstruct particular life stories or events, diaries record daily events without the benefit of retrospect, describing events as they unfold. Holding On and Holding Out assesses how individuals used diaries to record their daily life under persecution, each waiting for some end with a mix of hope and despair. Some used the diary to bear witness not only to the terror of their own lives, but also to the lives and suffering of others. Others used their writing as a memorial to people who were killed. All used their writing to assert: "I live, I will have lived." Holding On and Holding Out follows the diaries of two specific individuals, Raymond-Raoul Lambert and Benjamin Schatzman, from their first entry to the last one they wrote before they disappeared into the Nazi extermination camps. The author concludes the book by considering how reflections on their experience are informed by the times in which they lived, before the advent of persecution.


Isaac

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Autrefois, lorsqu’on lui demandait si elle était juive, Léa Veinstein répondait : «Mon arrière-grand-père était rabbin ! » De ce dernier pourtant ...

  • L'auteur : Léa Veinstein
  • Editeur: Grasset
  • ISBN: 2246818257
  • Genre: Fiction
  • Nombre de pages: 144
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1679
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Détails: Autrefois, lorsqu’on lui demandait si elle était juive, Léa Veinstein répondait : «Mon arrière-grand-père était rabbin ! » De ce dernier pourtant, elle ne savait rien, pas même le prénom : Isaac. La mémoire familiale avait préféré l’effacer... Pourquoi ? C’est ce que Léa décide un jour d’élucider, alors que tout dans sa vie la ramène vers un judaïsme qu’elle avait longtemps tenu à distance : ses études de philosophie, sa rencontre avec Solal, la naissance de son fils... Isaac chantait à l’époque où il n’était encore que ministre officiant à la synagogue de Neuilly. Tous ceux qui l’ont connu se rappellent sa voix magnifique. Mais lorsque Paris fut occupé, et le rabbin de Neuilly contraint de fuir, Isaac prit sa relève. Le régime de Vichy lui octroya une carte de légitimation - découverte bouleversante pour Léa : ce papier signifiait-il qu’Isaac avait collaboré, ou choisissant de rester, ne s’était-il engagé à protéger sa communauté? Dans ce récit très personnel, Léa Veinstein ébauche des réponses comme on se fraye un chemin, tantôt indignée, inquiète, ou apaisée. Grâce aux témoins d’hier et d’aujourd’hui, grâce aux documents qu’elle retrouve au cours de son enquête, elle parvient à nous offrir un texte tendre et sans complaisance : hommage à l’aïeul effacé, hommage à la famille... Et tentative de comprendre, à une époque où l’antisémitisme ressurgit de façon terrifiante, ce que signifie « être juif » : une identité bien sûr, une transmission - une liberté, surtout.


Un siècle de génocides

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Le XXe siècle restera celui de l'épouvante. Il a commencé avec l'éradication des populations arméniennes de l'Empire ottoman et s'est terminé avec l' ...

  • L'auteur : Bernard Bruneteau
  • Editeur: Armand Colin
  • ISBN: 2200616732
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 288
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1656
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Détails: Le XXe siècle restera celui de l'épouvante. Il a commencé avec l'éradication des populations arméniennes de l'Empire ottoman et s'est terminé avec l'extermination des Tutsis du Rwanda et le "nettoyage ethnique" dans l'ex-Yougoslavie. Entre ces deux moments, le monde aura été le témoin des grands massacres de l'ère stalinienne, de l'immense tragédie de la Shoah, de la disparition d'une partie du peuple cambodgien. Cet essai met en perspective les entreprises exterminatrices les plus marquantes du XXe siècle. Leur histoire montre que le crime de génocide se fonde sur le ciblage stigmatisant d'un groupe à partir de la définition aussi arbitraire que délirante qu'en donne le perpétrateur. Aussi l'auteur s'attache-t-il en permanence à répondre à deux questions : qu'est-ce qui détermine l'intention ultime du génocide? qu'est-ce qui autorise le génocide à se présenter comme une "solution"?


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