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Global Economic Prospects January 2020

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Global Economic Prospects, January 2020

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Global growth is projected to be slightly faster in 2020 than the post-crisis low registered last year. While growth could be stronger if reduced trade ten ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464814694
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 270
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1125
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Détails: Global growth is projected to be slightly faster in 2020 than the post-crisis low registered last year. While growth could be stronger if reduced trade tensions lead to a sustained reduction in uncertainty, the balance of risks to the outlook is to the downside. Growth in emerging market and developing economies is also expected to remain subdued, continuing a decade of disappointing outcomes. A steep and widespread productivity growth slowdown has been underway in these economies since the global financial crisis, despite the largest, fastest, and most broad-based accumulation of debt since the 1970s. In addition, many emerging market and developing economies, including low-income countries, face the challenge of phasing out price controls that impose heavy fiscal cost and dampen investment. These circumstances add urgency to the need to implement measures to rebuild macroeconomic policy space and to undertake reforms to rekindle productivity growth. These efforts need to be supplemented by policies to promote inclusive and sustainable long-term growth and accelerate poverty alleviation. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing countries, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, whereas the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.


Global Economic Prospects, June 2020

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The COVID-19 pandemic has, with alarming speed, dealt a heavy blow to an already-weak global economy, which is expected to slide into its deepest recession ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464815801
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 234
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 844
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Détails: The COVID-19 pandemic has, with alarming speed, dealt a heavy blow to an already-weak global economy, which is expected to slide into its deepest recession since the second world war, despite unprecedented policy support. The global recession would be deeper if countries take longer to bring the pandemic under control, if financial stress triggers defaults, or if there are protracted effects on households and firms. Economic disruptions are likely to be more severe and protracted in emerging market and developing economies with larger domestic outbreaks and weaker medical care systems; greater exposure to international spillovers through trade, tourism, and commodity and financial markets; weaker macroeconomic frameworks; and more pervasive informality and poverty. Beyond the current steep economic contraction, the pandemic is likely to leave lasting scars on the global economy by undermining consumer and investor confidence, human capital, and global value chains. Being mostly a reflection of the recent plunge in global energy demand, low oil prices are unlikely to provide much of a boost to global growth in the near term. While policymakers' immediate priorities are to address the health crisis and moderate the short-term economic losses, the likely long-term consequences of the pandemic highlight the need to forcefully undertake comprehensive reform programs to improve the fundamental drivers of economic growth, once the crisis abates. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.


Global Economic Prospects, June 2017

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Global activity is firming broadly as expected. Manufacturing and trade are picking up, confidence is improving, international financing conditions remain ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464810265
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 136
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1830
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Détails: Global activity is firming broadly as expected. Manufacturing and trade are picking up, confidence is improving, international financing conditions remain benign, and commodity prices are stabilizing. Growth in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) is set to recover, as obstacles to growth in commodity exporters diminish, while activity in commodity importers remains robust. Risks to the global outlook remain tilted to the downside. These include increased trade protectionism, elevated economic policy uncertainty, the possibility of financial market disruptions, and, over the longer term, weaker potential growth. A policy priority for EMDEs is to rebuild monetary and fiscal space that could be drawn on were such risks to materialize. Over the longer term, structural policies that support investment and trade are critical to boost EMDE productivity and potential growth. In addition to discussing global and regional economic developments and prospects, this edition of Global Economic Prospects includes two Special Focus essays of critical importance for emerging and developing economies: an analysis of fiscal positions in EMDEs and a deeper look at the type of firms most affected by post-crisis trade weakness. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing countries, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.


World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020

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This is the United Nations definitive report on the state of the world economy, providing global and regional economic outlook for 2020 and 2021. Produced ...

  • L'auteur : United Nations
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 921358329X
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 236
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1068
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Détails: This is the United Nations definitive report on the state of the world economy, providing global and regional economic outlook for 2020 and 2021. Produced by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the five United Nations regional commissions, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, with contributions from the UN World Tourism Organization and other intergovernmental agencies.


World Economic Outlook, October 2019

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World Economic Outlook, October 2019 ...

  • L'auteur : International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
  • Editeur: International Monetary Fund
  • ISBN: 1513516175
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 208
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 647
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Détails: World Economic Outlook, October 2019


Global Economic Prospects, January 2019

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The outlook for the global economy has darkened. Global financing conditions have tightened, industrial production has moderated, trade tensions have inten ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464813868
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 270
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 478
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Détails: The outlook for the global economy has darkened. Global financing conditions have tightened, industrial production has moderated, trade tensions have intensified, and some large emerging market and developing economies have experienced significant financial market stress. Faced with these headwinds, the recovery in emerging market and developing economies has lost momentum. Downside risks have become more acute and include the possibility of disorderly financial market movements and an escalation of trade disputes. Debt vulnerabilities in emerging market and developing economies, particularly low-income countries, have increased. More frequent severe weather events would raise the possibility of large swings in international food prices, which could deepen poverty. In this difficult environment, it is of paramount importance for emerging market and developing economies to rebuild policy buffers while laying a stronger foundation for future growth by boosting human capital, promoting trade integration, and addressing the challenges associated with informality,


Global Economic Prospects, June 2018

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Global growth has eased but remains robust and is projected to reach 3.1 percent in 2018. It is expected to edge down in the next two years, to 2.9 percent ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464813248
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 180
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 313
  • Telecharger: 313
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Détails: Global growth has eased but remains robust and is projected to reach 3.1 percent in 2018. It is expected to edge down in the next two years, to 2.9 percent by 2020, as global slack dissipates, trade and investment moderate, and financing conditions tighten. Growth in advanced economies is predicted to decelerate toward potential rates as monetary policy normalizes and the effects of U.S. fiscal stimulus wane. In emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs), growth in commodity importers will remain robust, while the rebound in commodity exporters is projected to mature during the next two years. Progress in per capita income growth will be uneven, however, remaining particularly subdued in Sub-Saharan Africa. Risks to the outlook remain tilted to the downside. The possibilities of escalating trade protectionism and disorderly financial market movements have increased substantially in recent months, and the risk of heightened geopolitical tensions continues to cloud the outlook. EMDE policymakers need to rebuild monetary and fiscal policy buffers and be prepared for rising global interest rates and possible episodes of financial market turbulence. In the longer run, EMDEs need to tackle ongoing structural challenges and boost potential growth, by promoting competitiveness, adaptability to technological change, and trade openness. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing countries, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.


Global Economic Prospects 2010

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“The crisis has deeply impacted virtually every economy in the world, and although growth has returned, much progress in the fight against poverty ha ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 0821382268
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 184
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1515
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Détails: “The crisis has deeply impacted virtually every economy in the world, and although growth has returned, much progress in the fight against poverty has been lost. More difficult international conditions in the years to come will mean that developing countries will have to place even more emphasis on improving domestic economic conditions to achieve the kind of growth that can durably eradicate poverty.â€? —Justin Yifu Lin, Chief Economist and Senior Vice President The World Bank 'Global Economic Prospects 2010: Crisis, Finance, and Growth' explores both the short- and medium-term impacts of the financial crisis on developing countries. Although global growth has resumed, the recovery is fragile, and unless business and consumer demand strengthen, the world economy could slow down again. Even if, as appears likely, a double-dip recession is avoided, the recovery is expected to be slow. High unemployment and widespread restructuring will continue to characterize the global economy for the next several years. Already, the crisis has provoked large-scale human suffering. Some 64 million more people around the world are expected to be living on less than a $1.25 per day by the end of 2010, and between 30,000 and 50,000 more infants may have died of malnutrition in 2009 in Sub-Saharan Africa, than would have been the case if the crisis had not occurred. Over the medium term, economic growth is expected to recover. But increased risk aversion, a necessary and desirable tightening of financial regulations in high-income countries, and measures to reduce the exposure of developing economies to external shocks are likely to make finance scarcer and more costly than it was during the boom period. As a result, just as the ample liquidity of the early 2000s prompted an investment boom and an acceleration in developing-country potential output, higher costs will likely yield a slowing in developing-country potential growth rates of between 0.2 and 0.7 percentage points, and as much as an 8 percent decline in potential output over the medium term. In the longer term, however, developing countries can more than offset the implications of more expensive international finance by reducing the cost of capital channeled through their domestic financial markets. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org/gep2010. To access Prospects for the Global Economy, an online companion publication, please visit www.worldbank.org/globaloutlook.


Belt and Road Economics

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China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013 to improve connectivity and cooperation on a transcontinental scale. This study, by a team of World Ban ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464814651
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 156
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1927
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Détails: China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013 to improve connectivity and cooperation on a transcontinental scale. This study, by a team of World Bank Group economists led by Michele Ruta, analyzes the economics of the initiative. It assesses the connectivity gaps between economies along the initiative’s corridors, examines the costs and economic effects of the infrastructure improvements proposed under the initiative, and identifies complementary policy reforms and institutions that will support welfare maximization and mitigation of risks for participating economies.


OECD Economic Outlook, Volume 2020 Issue 1

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The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. This issue includes a gene ...

  • L'auteur : OECD
  • Editeur: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264700617
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 327
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1458
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Détails: The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. This issue includes a general assessment of the macroeconomic situation, a series of notes on the macroeconomic and structural policy issues related to the COVID-19 outbreak and a chapter summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country.


Global Economic Prospects, June 2019

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Global growth appears to be stabilizing after a period of marked weakness, but it remains fragile. A modest recovery in emerging market and developing econ ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 146481399X
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 270
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1560
  • Telecharger: 1560
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Détails: Global growth appears to be stabilizing after a period of marked weakness, but it remains fragile. A modest recovery in emerging market and developing economies continues to be constrained by subdued investment, which is dampening prospects and impeding progress toward achieving critical development goals. Downside risks to the outlook remain elevated, and policymakers continue to face major challenges to boost resilience and foster long-term growth. this issue includes essays on the benefits and risks of government borrowing, recent investment weakness in emerging market and developing economies, the pass-through of currency depreciations to inflation, and the evolution of growth in low-income countries.


Global Economic Prospects 2008

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'Global Economic Prospects 2008: Technology Diffusion in the Developing World' examines the state of technology in developing countries and the pace with w ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 9780821373668
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 220
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 445
  • Telecharger: 445
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Détails: 'Global Economic Prospects 2008: Technology Diffusion in the Developing World' examines the state of technology in developing countries and the pace with which it has advanced since the early 1990s. It reveals both encouraging and cautionary trends. On the one hand, the pace of technological progress in developing countries has been much faster than in high-income countries-reflecting increased exposure to foreign technology as a result of linkages with high-skilled diasporas and the opening of these countries to international trade and foreign direct investment.On the other hand, the technology gap remains large, and the domestic factors that determine how quickly technologies spread within developing countries often stymie progress, especially among low-income countries. This year's 'Global Economic Prospects' comes on the heels of an extended period of strong growth and a 15 year period of strong performance in much of the developing world, which has contributed to substantial declines in global poverty. While high oil prices and heightened market volatility may signal a coming pause in this process, over the longer term continued technological progress should continue to push back poverty. 'Rapid technological progress in developing countries has been central to the reduction of poverty in recent decades. While the integration of global markets has played and will continue to play a key role in this, future success will increasingly depend on strengthening technical competencies and the business environment for innovative firms in developing countries.' - Graeme Wheeler, Managing Director, The World Bank


Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies

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This is the first comprehensive study in the context of EMDEs that covers, in one consistent framework, the evolution and global and domestic drivers of in ...

  • L'auteur : Jongrim Ha,M. Ayhan Kose,Franziska Ohnsorge
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464813760
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 486
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 877
  • Telecharger: 877
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Détails: This is the first comprehensive study in the context of EMDEs that covers, in one consistent framework, the evolution and global and domestic drivers of inflation, the role of expectations, exchange rate pass-through and policy implications. In addition, the report analyzes inflation and monetary policy related challenges in LICs. The report documents three major findings: In First, EMDE disinflation over the past four decades was to a significant degree a result of favorable external developments, pointing to the risk of rising EMDE inflation if global inflation were to increase. In particular, the decline in EMDE inflation has been supported by broad-based global disinflation amid rapid international trade and financial integration and the disruption caused by the global financial crisis. While domestic factors continue to be the main drivers of short-term movements in EMDE inflation, the role of global factors has risen by one-half between the 1970s and the 2000s. On average, global shocks, especially oil price swings and global demand shocks have accounted for more than one-quarter of domestic inflation variatio--and more in countries with stronger global linkages and greater reliance on commodity imports. In LICs, global food and energy price shocks accounted for another 12 percent of core inflation variatio--half more than in advanced economies and one-fifth more than in non-LIC EMDEs. Second, inflation expectations continue to be less well-anchored in EMDEs than in advanced economies, although a move to inflation targeting and better fiscal frameworks has helped strengthen monetary policy credibility. Lower monetary policy credibility and exchange rate flexibility have also been associated with higher pass-through of exchange rate shocks into domestic inflation in the event of global shocks, which have accounted for half of EMDE exchange rate variation. Third, in part because of poorly anchored inflation expectations, the transmission of global commodity price shocks to domestic LIC inflation (combined with unintended consequences of other government policies) can have material implications for poverty: the global food price spikes in 2010-11 tipped roughly 8 million people into poverty.


For Protection and Promotion

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Safety nets are noncontributory transfer programs targeted to the poor or vulnerable. They play important roles in social policy. Safety nets redistribute ...

  • L'auteur : Margaret Grosh,Carlo Del Ninno,Emil Tesliuc,Azedine Ouerghi
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 9780821375822
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 612
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1177
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Détails: Safety nets are noncontributory transfer programs targeted to the poor or vulnerable. They play important roles in social policy. Safety nets redistribute income, thereby immediately reducing poverty and inequality; they enable households to invest in the human capital of their children and in the livelihoods of their earners; they help households manage risk, both ex ante and ex post; and they allow governments to implement macroeconomic or sectoral reforms that support efficiency and growth. To be effective, safety nets must not only be well intended, but also well designed and well implemented. A good safety net system and its programs are tailored to country circumstances, adequate in their coverage and generosity, equitable, cost-effective, incentive compatible, and sustainable. Good safety nets are also dynamic and change over time as the economy changes or as management problems are solved and new standards are set. Drawing on a wealth of research, policy, and operational documents from both academia and the World Bank s work in over 100 countries, For Protection and Promotion provides pragmatic and informed guidance on how to design and implement safety nets, including useful information on how to define eligibility and select beneficiaries, set and pay benefits, and monitor and evaluate programs and systems. The book synthesizes the literature to date and enriches it with new examples on various program options cash transfers (conditional and unconditional), in-kind transfers, price subsidies, fee waivers, and public works. It concludes with a comprehensive diagnostic for fitting safety net systems and programs to specific circumstances.


Global Waves of Debt

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The global economy has experienced four waves of rapid debt accumulation over the past 50 years. The first three debt waves ended with financial crises in ...

  • L'auteur : M. Ayhan Kose,Peter Nagle,Franziska Ohnsorge,Naotaka Sugawara
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464815453
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 306
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1586
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Détails: The global economy has experienced four waves of rapid debt accumulation over the past 50 years. The first three debt waves ended with financial crises in many emerging market and developing economies. During the current wave, which started in 2010, the increase in debt in these economies has already been larger, faster, and broader-based than in the previous three waves. Current low interest rates mitigate some of the risks associated with high debt. However, emerging market and developing economies are also confronted by weak growth prospects, mounting vulnerabilities, and elevated global risks. A menu of policy options is available to reduce the likelihood that the current debt wave will end in crisis and, if crises do take place, will alleviate their impact.


Global Economic Prospects, January 2017

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Stagnant global trade, subdued investment, and heightened policy uncertainty marked another difficult year for the world economy. A subdued recovery is exp ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank Group
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464810176
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 272
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1727
  • Telecharger: 1727
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Détails: Stagnant global trade, subdued investment, and heightened policy uncertainty marked another difficult year for the world economy. A subdued recovery is expected for 2017, with receding obstacles to activity in commodity exporters and solid domestic demand in commodity importers. Weak investment is weighing on medium-term prospects across many emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). Although fiscal stimulus in major economies, if implemented, may boost global growth above expectations, risks to growth forecasts remain tilted to the downside. Important downside risks stem from heightened policy uncertainty in major economies. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report. On a semiannual basis (January and June), it examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on developing countries. The report includes analysis of topical policy challenges faced by developing countries through in-depth research in the January edition and shorter analytical pieces in the June edition.


World Development Report 2011

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The 2011 WDR on Conflict, Security and Development underlines the devastating impact of persistent conflict on a country or region's development prospects ...

  • L'auteur : World Bank
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 0821384406
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 412
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1976
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Détails: The 2011 WDR on Conflict, Security and Development underlines the devastating impact of persistent conflict on a country or region's development prospects - noting that the 1.5 billion people living in conflict-affected areas are twice as likely to be in poverty. Its goal is to contribute concrete, practical suggestions on conflict and fragility.


Global Economic Prospects 2009

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The eruption of the worldwide financial crisis has radically recast prospects for the world economy. 'Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodity Markets at ...

  • L'auteur : The World Bank
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 9780821378014
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 200
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 476
  • Telecharger: 476
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Détails: The eruption of the worldwide financial crisis has radically recast prospects for the world economy. 'Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodity Markets at the Crossroads' analyzes the implications of the crisis for low- and middle-income countries, including an in-depth look at long-term prospects for global commodity markets and the policies of both commodity producing and consuming nations. Developing countries face sharply higher borrowing costs and reduced access to capital. This will cut into their capacity to finance investment spending ending a five-year stretch of developing-country growth in excess of 6 percent annually. The looming recession presents new risks, coming as it does on the heels of the recent food and fuel crisis. Commodity markets, meantime, are at a crossroads. Years of fast GDP growth contributed to the rise in commodity prices, while the slowdown provoked by the financial crisis has seen those same prices plummet. However, other factors were also at play, notably a period of low investment in commodity supply capacity during the 1990s due to low prices and reduced demand from the countries of the former Soviet Bloc. In the longer run, slower population growth is expected to ease the pace at which commodity demand grows, while commodity producers are expected to discover sufficient new supplies and improved production techniques to prevent any acute shortages from developing. In part, this is because prices are projected to be higher than they were in the 1990s, which will induce necessary investment in exploration and production by firms. Higher prices will also promote greater conservation and substitution with more abundant alternatives, while policies to limit carbon emissions and boost agricultural investment and the dissemination of efficient techniques will also contribute. This year s 'Global Economic Prospects' also looks at government responses to the recent price boom. Producing-country governments have been more prudent than during earlier booms, and because they have saved more of their windfall revenues, they are less likely to be forced to cut into spending now that prices have declined. The spike in food prices tipped more people into poverty, which led governments to expand social assistance programs. Ensuring such programs are better targeted toward the needs of the very poor in the future will help improve the capacity of governments to respond effectively the next time there is a crisis.


World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017

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This publication notes that although a modest global recovery is projected for 2017-18, the world economy has not yet emerged from the period of slow growt ...

  • L'auteur : United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 9210599454
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 220
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 615
  • Telecharger: 615
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Détails: This publication notes that although a modest global recovery is projected for 2017-18, the world economy has not yet emerged from the period of slow growth, characterised by weak investment, dwindling trade and flagging productivity growth. The report highlights that there is a need to redouble efforts to bring the global economy back on a stronger and more inclusive growth path and create an international economic environment that is conducive to sustainable development. This is the definitive report of the United Nations on the state of the world economy. It is jointly published by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the five United Nations Regional Commissions.


World Economic Outlook, April 2012

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The April 2012 issue of the World Economic Outlook assesses the prospects for the global economy, which has gradually strengthened after a major setback du ...

  • L'auteur : International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
  • Editeur: International Monetary Fund
  • ISBN: 1475507038
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 294
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 335
  • Telecharger: 335
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Détails: The April 2012 issue of the World Economic Outlook assesses the prospects for the global economy, which has gradually strengthened after a major setback during 2011. The threat of a sharp global slowdown eased with improved activity in the United States and better policies in the euro area. Weak recovery will likely resume in the major advanced economies, and activity will remain relatively solid in most emerging and developing economies. However, recent improvements are very fragile. Policymakers must calibrate policies to support growth in the near term and must implement fundamental changes to achieve healthy growth in the medium term. Chapter 3 examines how policies directed at real estate markets can accelerate the improvement of household balance sheets and thus support otherwise anemic consumption. Chapter 4 examines how swings in commodity prices affect commodity-exporting economies, many of which have experienced a decade of good growth. With commodity prices unlikely to continue growing at the recent elevated pace, however, these economies may have to adapt their fiscal and other policies to lower potential output growth in the future.


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