Telecharger Pdf:

Jean Renart Le Roman De La Rose Ou De Guillaume De Dole

Jean Renart Le Roman De La Rose Ou De Guillaume De Dole. Ce sont les livres pour ceux qui cherchent à lire le Jean Renart Le Roman De La Rose Ou De Guillaume De Dole, à lire ou à télécharger des livres Pdf / ePub et certains auteurs peuvent avoir désactivé la lecture en direct.Vérifiez le livre s'il est disponible pour votre pays et si l'utilisateur déjà abonné aura accès à tous les livres gratuits de la bibliothèque.

Thinking Medieval Romance

Telecharger pdf Thinking Medieval Romance

Medieval romances with their magic fountains, brave knights, and beautiful maidens have come to stand for the Middle Ages more generally. This close connec ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0192514369
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 256
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1512
  • Telecharger: 1512
  • GET EBOOK

Détails: Medieval romances with their magic fountains, brave knights, and beautiful maidens have come to stand for the Middle Ages more generally. This close connection between the medieval and the romance has had consequences for popular conceptions of the Middle Ages, an idealized fantasy of chivalry and hierarchy, and also for our understanding of romances, as always already archaic, part of a half-forgotten past. And yet, romances were one of the most influential and long-lasting innovations of the medieval period. To emphasize their novelty is to see the resources medieval people had for thinking about their contemporary concern and controversies, whether social order, Jewish/ Christian relations, the Crusades, the connectivity of the Mediterranean, women's roles as mothers, and how to write a national past. This volume takes up the challenge to 'think romance', investigating the various ways that romances imagine, reflect, and describe the challenges of the medieval world.


The Carole: A Study of a Medieval Dance

Telecharger pdf The Carole: A Study of a Medieval Dance

The carole was the principal social dance in France and England from c. 1100 to c. 1400 and was frequently mentioned in French and English medieval literat ...

  • L'auteur : Robert Mullally
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351545779
  • Genre: Performing Arts
  • Nombre de pages: 172
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1159
  • Telecharger: 1159
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: The carole was the principal social dance in France and England from c. 1100 to c. 1400 and was frequently mentioned in French and English medieval literature. However, it has been widely misunderstood by contributors in recent citations in dictionaries and reference books, both linguistic and musical. The carole was performed by all classes of society - kings and nobles, shepherds and servant girls. It is described as taking place both indoors and outdoors. Its central position in the life of the people is underlined by references not only in what we might call fictional texts, but also in historical (or quasi-historical) writings, in moral treatises and even in a work on astronomy. Dr Robert Mullally's focus is very much on details relevant to the history, choreography and performance of the dance as revealed in the primary sources. This methodology involves attempting to isolate the term carole from other dance terms not only in French, but also in other languages. Mullally's groundbreaking study establishes all the characteristics of this dance: etymological, choreographical, lyrical, musical and iconographical.


Medievalia et Humanistica, No. 38

Telecharger pdf Medievalia et Humanistica, No. 38

Since its founding in 1943, Medievalia et Humanistica has won worldwide recognition as the first scholarly publication in America to devote itself entirely ...

  • L'auteur : Reinhold F. Glei,Wolfgang Polleichtner
  • Editeur: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • ISBN: 1442220538
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 180
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1048
  • Telecharger: 1048
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: Since its founding in 1943, Medievalia et Humanistica has won worldwide recognition as the first scholarly publication in America to devote itself entirely to medieval and Renaissance studies. Volume 38 showcases a broad range of medieval scholarship, including five original articles, one review article, and seven review notices.


The Singer and the Scribe

Telecharger pdf The Singer and the Scribe

The Singer and the Scribe brings together studies of the European ballad from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century by major authorities in the field an ...

  • L'auteur : Philip E. Bennett,Richard Firth Green
  • Editeur: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789042018518
  • Genre: Music
  • Nombre de pages: 223
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 906
  • Telecharger: 906
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: The Singer and the Scribe brings together studies of the European ballad from the Middle Ages to the twentieth century by major authorities in the field and is of interest to students of European literature, popular traditions and folksong. It offers an original view of the development of the ballad by focusing on the interplay and interdependence of written and oral transmission, including studies of modern singers and their repertoires and of the role of the audience in generating a literary product which continues to live in performance. While using specific case studies the contributors systematically extend their reflections on the ballad as song and as poetry to draw broader conclusions. Covering the Hispanic world, including the Sephardic tradition, Scandinavia, The Netherlands, Greece, Russia, England and Scotland the essays also demonstrate the interconnections of a European tradition beyond national boundaries.


The Legacy of Chrétien de Troyes: Chrétien et ses contemporains

Telecharger pdf The Legacy of Chrétien de Troyes: Chrétien et ses contemporains

...

  • L'auteur : Norris J. Lacy,Douglas Kelly,Keith Busby
  • Editeur: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789062037384
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Nombre de pages: 348
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1638
  • Telecharger: 1638
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails:


The Language of Sex

Telecharger pdf The Language of Sex

This study brings together widely divergent discourses to fashion a comprehensive picture of sexual language and attitudes at a particular time and place i ...

  • L'auteur : John W. Baldwin
  • Editeur: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 0226036235
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 360
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1763
  • Telecharger: 1763
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: This study brings together widely divergent discourses to fashion a comprehensive picture of sexual language and attitudes at a particular time and place in the medieval world. John Baldwin introduces five representative voices from the turn of the twelfth century in northern France: Pierre the Chanter speaks for the theological doctrine of Augustine; the Prose Salernitan Questions, for the medical theories of Galen; Andre the Chaplain, for the Ovidian literature of the schools; Jean Renart, for the contemporary romances; and Jean Bodel, for the emerging voices of the fabliaux. Baldwin juxtaposes their views on a range of essential subjects, including social position, the sexual body, desire and act, and procreation. The result is a fascinating dialogue of how they agreed or disagreed with, ignored, imitated, or responded to each other at a critical moment in the development of European ideas about sexual desire, fulfillment, morality, and gender. These spokesmen allow us into the discussion of sexuality inside the church and schools of the clergy, in high and popular culture of the leity. This heterogeneous discussion also offers a startling glimpse into the construction of gender specific to this moment, when men and women enjoyed equal status in sexual matters, if nowhere else. Taken together, these voices extend their reach, encompass their subject, and point to a center where social reality lies. By articulating reality at its varied depths, this study takes its place alongside groundbreaking works by James Brundage, John Boswell, and Leah Otis in extending our understanding of sexuality and sexual behavior in the Middle Ages. "Superb work. . . . These five kinds of discourse are not often treated together in scholarly writing, let alone compared and contrasted so well."—Edward Collins Vacek, Theological Studies "[Baldwin] has made the five voices speak to us in a language that is at one and the same time familiar and alien in its resonance and accents. This is a truly exceptional book, interdisciplinary in the real sense of the word, which is surely destined to become a landmark in medieval studies."—Keith Busby, Bryn Mawr Reviews "[Baldwin's] attempt to 'listen' to these distant voices and translate their language of sex into our own raises challenging methodological questions that will be of great interest to historians and literary scholars alike."—John P. Dalton, Comitatus


The Romance of the Rose or of Guillaume de Dole

Telecharger pdf The Romance of the Rose or of Guillaume de Dole

Published in 1995: The author of at least two noteworthy romances of the early thirteenth century, Le Roman de la Rose or Guillaume de Dole and L'Escoufle ...

  • L'auteur : Regina Psaki
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 042962722X
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 280
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 589
  • Telecharger: 589
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: Published in 1995: The author of at least two noteworthy romances of the early thirteenth century, Le Roman de la Rose or Guillaume de Dole and L'Escoufle (The Kite), as well as Le Lai de l'Ombre, Jean Renart is today recognized as the most accomplished practitioner of the "realistic romance" in Old French literature.


Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes

Telecharger pdf Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes

...

  • L'auteur : Keith Busby
  • Editeur: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789051836035
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Nombre de pages: 553
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1088
  • Telecharger: 1088
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails:


Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995)

Telecharger pdf Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995)

First published in 1995, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia is the first single-volume reference work on the history and culture of medieval France. It cover ...

  • L'auteur : William W. Kibler,Grover A. Zinn
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351665650
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 1078
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1174
  • Telecharger: 1174
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: First published in 1995, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia is the first single-volume reference work on the history and culture of medieval France. It covers the political, intellectual, literary, and musical history of the country from the early fifth to the late fifteenth century. The shorter entries offer succinct summaries of the lives of individuals, events, works, cities, monuments, and other important subjects, followed by essential bibliographies. Longer essay-length articles provide interpretive comments about significant institutions and important periods or events. The Encyclopedia is thoroughly cross-referenced and includes a generous selection of illustrations, maps, charts, and genealogies. It is especially strong in its coverage of economic issues, women, music, religion and literature. This comprehensive work of over 2,400 entries will be of key interest to students and scholars, as well as general readers.


Linguistic Informatics – State of the Art and the Future

Telecharger pdf Linguistic Informatics – State of the Art and the Future

It is widely believed that linguistic theories and information technology have considerably influenced foreign language education. However, the collaborati ...

  • L'auteur : Yuji Kawaguchi,Susumu Zaima,Toshihiro Takagaki,Kohji Shibano,Mayumi Usami
  • Editeur: John Benjamins Publishing
  • ISBN: 9027294429
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Nombre de pages: 363
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1837
  • Telecharger: 1837
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: It is widely believed that linguistic theories and information technology have considerably influenced foreign language education. However, the collaboration of these three domains has not brought about new scientific results. It it thus, our attempt to realize an integration of theoretical and applied linguistics on the basis of computer sciences, and establish a new synthetic field called "Linguistic Informatics." The present volume constitutes the Proceedings of the First International Conference on Linguistic Informatics held at Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS) in December 2003. The volume is comprised of five chapters. 1. Computer-Assisted Linguistics: Potential for collaboration between linguistics and informatics. 2. Corpus Linguistics : Status report on corpus-based linguistic research. 3. Applied Linguistics : Relationship between second language acquisition and linguistic theory. 4. Discourse Analysis and Language Teaching : Current status of natural dialogue-based discourse analysis. 5. TUFS Language Modules : Development of multilingual e-learning materials covering 17 different languages.


Ars nova

Telecharger pdf Ars nova

In the early fourteenth century, musicians in France and later Italy established new traditions of secular and sacred polyphony. This ars nova, or "new art ...

  • L'auteur : JohnL. Ns
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351575805
  • Genre: Music
  • Nombre de pages: 594
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1052
  • Telecharger: 1052
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: In the early fourteenth century, musicians in France and later Italy established new traditions of secular and sacred polyphony. This ars nova, or "new art," popularized by theorists such as Philippe de Vitry and Johannes de Muris was the among the first of many later movements to establish the music of the present as a clean break from the past. The rich music of this period, by composers such as Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini, is not only beautiful, but also rewards deep study and analysis. Yet contradictions and gaps abound in the ars nova of the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries-how do we read this music? how do we perform this music? what was the cultural context of these performances? These problems are well met by the ingenuity of approaches and solutions found by scholars in this volume. The twenty-seven articles brought together reflect the broad methodological and chronological range of scholarly inquiry on the ars nova.


Handbook of Medieval Studies

Telecharger pdf Handbook of Medieval Studies

This interdisciplinary handbook provides extensive information about research in medieval studies and its most important results over the last decades. The ...

  • L'auteur : Albrecht Classen
  • Editeur: Walter de Gruyter
  • ISBN: 3110215586
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 2849
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1685
  • Telecharger: 1685
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: This interdisciplinary handbook provides extensive information about research in medieval studies and its most important results over the last decades. The handbook is a reference work which enables the readers to quickly and purposely gain insight into the important research discussions and to inform themselves about the current status of research in the field. The handbook consists of four parts. The first, large section offers articles on all of the main disciplines and discussions of the field. The second section presents articles on the key concepts of modern medieval studies and the debates therein. The third section is a lexicon of the most important text genres of the Middle Ages. The fourth section provides an international bio-bibliographical lexicon of the most prominent medievalists in all disciplines. A comprehensive bibliography rounds off the compendium. The result is a reference work which exhaustively documents the current status of research in medieval studies and brings the disciplines and experts of the field together.


A New History of French Literature

Telecharger pdf A New History of French Literature

Designed for the general reader, this splendid introduction to French literature from 842 A.D.—the date of the earliest surviving document in any Romance ...

  • L'auteur : Denis Hollier
  • Editeur: Harvard University Press
  • ISBN: 0674254619
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 1200
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 729
  • Telecharger: 729
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: Designed for the general reader, this splendid introduction to French literature from 842 A.D.—the date of the earliest surviving document in any Romance language—to the present decade is the most compact and imaginative single-volume guide available in English to the French literary tradition. In fact, no comparable work exists in either language. It is not the customary inventory of authors and titles but rather a collection of wide-angled views of historical and cultural phenomena. It sets before us writers, public figures, criminals, saints, and monarchs, as well as religious, cultural, and social revolutions. It gives us books, paintings, public monuments, even TV shows. Written by 164 American and European specialists, the essays are introduced by date and arranged in chronological order, but here ends the book’s resemblance to the usual history of literature. Each date is followed by a headline evoking an event that indicates the chronological point of departure. Usually the event is literary—the publication of an original work, a journal, a translation, the first performance of a play, the death of an author—but some events are literary only in terms of their repercussions and resonances. Essays devoted to a genre exist alongside essays devoted to one book, institutions are presented side by side with literary movements, and large surveys appear next to detailed discussions of specific landmarks. No article is limited to the “life and works” of a single author. Proust, for example, appears through various lenses: fleetingly, in 1701, apropos of Antoine Galland’s translation of The Thousand and One Nights; in 1898, in connection with the Dreyfus Affair; in 1905, on the occasion of the law on the separation of church and state; in 1911, in relation to Gide and their different treatments of homosexuality; and at his death in 1922. Without attempting to cover every author, work, and cultural development since the Serments de Strasbourg in 842, this history succeeds in being both informative and critical about the more than 1,000 years it describes. The contributors offer us a chance to appreciate not only French culture but also the major critical positions in literary studies today. A New History of French Literature will be essential reading for all engaged in the study of French culture and for all who are interested in it. It is an authoritative, lively, and readable volume.


Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2006

Telecharger pdf Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2006

The annual conference series ‘Going Romance’ has developed into a major European discussion forum where ideas about language and linguistics and about ...

  • L'auteur : Danièle Torck,W. Leo Wetzels
  • Editeur: John Benjamins Publishing
  • ISBN: 902729092X
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Nombre de pages: 262
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1128
  • Telecharger: 1128
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: The annual conference series ‘Going Romance’ has developed into a major European discussion forum where ideas about language and linguistics and about Romance languages in particular are put in an inter­active perspective, giving room to both universality and Romance-internal variation. The current volume contains a selection of the papers that were presented at the 20th Going Romance conference, held at the VU University in Amsterdam in December 2006. The papers in the volume deal with current issues in phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics, and range across a variety of Romance languages.


The Lily and the Thistle

Telecharger pdf The Lily and the Thistle

In The Lily and the Thistle, William Calin argues for a reconsideration of the French impact on medieval and renaissance Scottish literature. Calin propose ...

  • L'auteur : William Calin
  • Editeur: University of Toronto Press
  • ISBN: 1442666250
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 432
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 625
  • Telecharger: 625
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: In The Lily and the Thistle, William Calin argues for a reconsideration of the French impact on medieval and renaissance Scottish literature. Calin proposes that much of traditional, medieval, and early modern Scottish culture, thought to be native to Scotland or primarily from England, is in fact strikingly international and European. By situating Scottish works in a broad intertextual context, Calin reveals which French genres and modes were most popular in Scotland and why. The Lily and the Thistle provides appraisals of medieval narrative texts in the high courtly mode (equivalent to the French “dits amoureux”); comic, didactic, and satirical texts; and Scots romance. Special attention is accorded to texts composed originally in French such as the Arthurian “Roman de Fergus,” as well as to the lyrics of Mary Queen of Scots and little known writers from the French and Scottish canons. By considering both medieval and renaissance works, Calin is able to observe shifts in taste and French influence over the centuries.


Speech and Thought Presentation in French

Telecharger pdf Speech and Thought Presentation in French

This book analyses and describes Speech and Thought Presentation (S&TP) in French from a broad theoretical perspective, building bridges between linguistic ...

  • L'auteur : Sophie Marnette
  • Editeur: John Benjamins Publishing
  • ISBN: 9027294321
  • Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Nombre de pages: 379
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 641
  • Telecharger: 641
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: This book analyses and describes Speech and Thought Presentation (S&TP) in French from a broad theoretical perspective, building bridges between linguistic, stylistic and narratological frameworks that have until now been developed separately. It combines the French théorie de l’énonciation and different Anglo-Saxon approaches of reported discourse into a harmonious whole, in order to create a new and exciting paradigm for our conception of S&TP strategies. Basing its findings on actual corpora and going beyond the canonical categories of reported discourse, it shows that the study of S&TP strategies is essential to our understanding of phenomena as diverse as the evolution and categorization of literary genres, the production and staging of ‘orality’ in literature, the various conceptualizations of the notion of ‘Truth’ in fiction and non-fiction, the expression of points of view in narrative, the structuring of rhetorical strategies and the construction of the ‘Self’ versus the representation of the ‘Other’ in discourse.


Ringleaders of Redemption

Telecharger pdf Ringleaders of Redemption

In popular thought, Christianity is often figured as being opposed to dance. Conventional scholarship traces this controversy back to the Middle Ages. Thro ...

  • L'auteur : Kathryn Dickason
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0197527299
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 384
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 526
  • Telecharger: 526
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: In popular thought, Christianity is often figured as being opposed to dance. Conventional scholarship traces this controversy back to the Middle Ages. Throughout the medieval era, the Latin Church denounced and prohibited dancing in religious and secular realms, often aligning it with demonic intervention, lust, pride, and sacrilege. Historical sources, however, suggest that medieval dance was a complex and ambivalent phenomenon. During the High and Late Middle Ages, Western theologians, liturgists, and mystics not only tolerated dance; they transformed it into a dynamic component of religious thought and practice. This book investigates how dance became a legitimate form of devotion in Christian culture. Sacred dance functioned to gloss scripture, frame spiritual experience, and imagine the afterlife. Invoking numerous manuscript and visual sources (biblical commentaries, sermons, saints' lives, ecclesiastical statutes, mystical treatises, vernacular literature, and iconography), this book highlights how medieval dance helped shape religious identity and social stratification. Moreover, this book shows the political dimension of dance, which worked in the service of Christendom, conversion, and social cohesion. In Ringleaders of Redemption, Kathryn Dickason reveals a long tradition of sacred dance in Christianity, one that the professionalization and secularization of Renaissance dance obscured, and one that the Reformation silenced and suppressed.


Weaving Narrative

Telecharger pdf Weaving Narrative

Enide’s tattered dress and Erec’s fabulous coronation robe; Yvain’s nudity in the forest, which prevents maidens who know him well clothed from ident ...

  • L'auteur : Monica L. Wright
  • Editeur: Penn State Press
  • ISBN: 0271056630
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 192
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1827
  • Telecharger: 1827
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: Enide’s tattered dress and Erec’s fabulous coronation robe; Yvain’s nudity in the forest, which prevents maidens who know him well clothed from identifying him; Lanval’s fairy-lady parading about in the Arthurian court, scantily dressed, for all to observe: just why is clothing so important in twelfth-century French romance? This interdisciplinary book explores how writers of this era used clothing as a signifier with multiple meanings for many narrative purposes. Clothing figured prominently in twelfth-century France, where exotic fabrics and furs came to define a social elite. Monica Wright shows that representations of clothing are not mere embellishments to the text; they help form the textual weave of the romances in which they appear. This book is about how these descriptions are constructed, what they mean, and how clothing becomes an active part of romance composition—the ways in which writers use it to develop and elaborate character, to advance or stall the plot, and to structure the narrative generally.


Women and Work in Premodern Europe

Telecharger pdf Women and Work in Premodern Europe

This book re-evaluates and extends understandings about how work was conceived and what it could entail for women in the premodern period in Europe from c. ...

  • L'auteur : Merridee L. Bailey,Tania M. Colwell,Julie Hotchin
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1315475073
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 244
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1493
  • Telecharger: 1493
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: This book re-evaluates and extends understandings about how work was conceived and what it could entail for women in the premodern period in Europe from c. 1100 to c. 1800. It does this by building on the impressive growth in literature on women’s working experiences, and by adopting new interpretive approaches that expand received assumptions about what constituted 'work' for women. While attention to the diversity of women’s contributions to the economy has done much to make the breadth of women’s experiences of labour visible, this volume takes a more expansive conceptual approach to the notion of work and considers the social and cultural dimensions in which activities were construed and valued as work. This interdisciplinary collection thus advances concepts of work that encompass cultural activities in addition to more traditional economic understandings of work as employment or labour for production. The chapters reconceptualise and explore work for women by asking how the working lives of historical women were enacted and represented, and analyse the relationships that shaped women’s experiences of work across the European premodern period.


The Chivalric Turn

Telecharger pdf The Chivalric Turn

The Chivalric Turn examines the medieval obsession with defining and practising superior conduct, and the social consequences that followed from it. Histor ...

  • L'auteur : David Crouch
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0191085812
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 400
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1238
  • Telecharger: 1238
  • DOWNLOAD

Détails: The Chivalric Turn examines the medieval obsession with defining and practising superior conduct, and the social consequences that followed from it. Historians since the seventeenth century have tended to understand medieval conduct through the eyes of the writers of the Enlightenment, viewing superior conduct as 'knightly' behaviour, and categorising it as chivalry. Using, for the first time, the full range of the considerable twelfth- and thirteenth-century literature on conduct in the European vernaculars and in Latin, The Chivalric Turn describes and defines what superior lay conduct was in European society before chivalry, and maps how and why chivalry emerged and redefined superior conduct in the last generation of the twelfth century. The emergence of chivalry was only one part of a major social change, because it changed how people understood the concept of nobility, which had consequences for the medieval understanding of gender, social class, violence, and the limits of law.