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L Atomisme Aux Xviie Et Xviiie Siècles

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Enlightenment Contested

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Jonathan Israel presents the first major reassessment of the Western Enlightenment for a generation. Continuing the story he began in the best-selling Radi ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191057487
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Nombre de pages: 1024
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1863
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Détails: Jonathan Israel presents the first major reassessment of the Western Enlightenment for a generation. Continuing the story he began in the best-selling Radical Enlightenment , and now focusing his attention on the first half of the eighteenth century, he returns to the original sources to offer a groundbreaking new perspective on the nature and development of the most important currents in modern thought. Israel traces many of the core principles of Western modernity to their roots in the social, political, and philosophical ferment of this period: the primacy of reason, democracy, racial equality, feminism, religious toleration, sexual emancipation, and freedom of expression. He emphasizes the dual character of the Enlightenment, and the bitter struggle between on the one hand a generally dominant, anti-democratic mainstream, supporting the monarchy, aristocracy, and ecclesiastical authority, and on the other a largely repressed democratic, republican, and 'materialist' radical fringe. He also contends that the supposedly separate French, British, German, Dutch, and Italian enlightenments interacted to such a degree that their study in isolation gives a hopelessly distorted picture. A work of dazzling and highly accessible scholarship, Enlightenment Contested will be the definitive reference point for historians, philosophers, and anyone engaged with this fascinating period of human development.


The Enlightenment that Failed

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The Enlightenment that Failed explores the growing rift between those Enlightenment trends and initiatives that appealed exclusively to elites and those as ...

  • L'auteur : Jonathan I. Israel
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0191058246
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 1024
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 477
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Détails: The Enlightenment that Failed explores the growing rift between those Enlightenment trends and initiatives that appealed exclusively to elites and those aspiring to enlighten all of society by raising mankind's awareness, freedoms, and educational level generally. Jonathan I. Israel explains why the democratic and radical secularizing tendency of the Western Enlightenment, after gaining some notable successes during the revolutionary era (1775-1820) in numerous countries, especially in Europe, North America, and Spanish America, ultimately failed. He argues that a populist, Robespierriste tendency, sharply at odds with democratic values and freedom of expression, gained an ideological advantage in France, and that the negative reaction this generally provoked caused a more general anti-Enlightenment reaction, a surging anti-intellectualism combined with forms of religious revival that largely undermined the longings of the deprived, underprivileged, and disadvantaged, and ended by helping, albeit often unwittingly, conservative anti-Enlightenment ideologies to dominate the scene. The Enlightenment that Failed relates both the American and the French revolutions to the Enlightenment in a markedly different fashion from how this is usually done, showing how both great revolutions were fundamentally split between bitterly opposed and utterly incompatible ideological tendencies. Radical Enlightenment, which had been an effective ideological challenge to the prevailing monarchical-aristocratic status quo, was weakened, then almost entirely derailed and displaced from the Western consciousness, in the 1830s and 1840s by the rise of Marxism and other forms of socialism.


Epicureanism at the Origins of Modernity

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This landmark study examines the role played by the rediscovery of the writings of the ancient atomists, Epicurus and Lucretius, in the articulation of the ...

  • L'auteur : Catherine Wilson
  • Editeur: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191608157
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Nombre de pages: 318
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 302
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Détails: This landmark study examines the role played by the rediscovery of the writings of the ancient atomists, Epicurus and Lucretius, in the articulation of the major philosophical systems of the seventeenth century, and, more broadly, their influence on the evolution of natural science and moral and political philosophy. The target of sustained and trenchant philosophical criticism by Cicero, and of opprobrium by the Christian Fathers of the early Church, for its unflinching commitment to the absence of divine supervision and the finitude of life, the Epicurean philosophy surfaced again in the period of the Scientific Revolution, when it displaced scholastic Aristotelianism. Both modern social contract theory and utilitarianism in ethics were grounded in its tenets. Catherine Wilson shows how the distinctive Epicurean image of the natural and social worlds took hold in philosophy, and how it is an acknowledged, and often unacknowledged presence in the writings of Descartes, Gassendi, Hobbes, Boyle, Locke, Leibniz, Berkeley. With chapters devoted to Epicurean physics and cosmology, the corpuscularian or "mechanical" philosophy, the question of the mortality of the soul, the grounds of political authority, the contested nature of the experimental philosophy, sensuality, curiosity, and the role of pleasure and utility in ethics, the author makes a persuasive case for the significance of materialism in seventeenth-century philosophy without underestimating the depth and significance of the opposition to it, and for its continued importance in the contemporary world. Lucretius's great poem, On the Nature of Things, supplies the frame of reference for this deeply-researched inquiry into the origins of modern philosophy. .


Sudden Death: Medicine and Religion in Eighteenth-Century Rome

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In 1705-1706, during the War of the Spanish Succession and two years after a devastating earthquake, an ’epidemic’ of mysterious sudden deaths terroriz ...

  • L'auteur : Maria Pia Donato
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317048520
  • Genre: Medical
  • Nombre de pages: 240
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1723
  • Telecharger: 1723
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Détails: In 1705-1706, during the War of the Spanish Succession and two years after a devastating earthquake, an ’epidemic’ of mysterious sudden deaths terrorized Rome. In early modern society, a sudden death was perceived as a mala mors because it threatened the victim’s salvation by hindering repentance and last confession. Special masses were celebrated to implore God’s clemency and Pope Clement XI ordered his personal physician, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, to perform a series of dissections in the university anatomical theatre in order to discover the 'true causes' of the deadly events. It was the first investigation of this kind ever to take place for a condition which was not contagious. The book that Lancisi published on this topic, De subitaneis mortibus (’On Sudden Deaths’, 1707), is one of the earliest modern scientific investigations of death; it was not only an accomplished example of mechanical philosophy as applied to the life sciences in eighteenth-century Europe, but also heralded a new pathological anatomy (traditionally associated with Giambattista Morgagni). Moreover, Lancisi’s tract and the whole affair of the sudden deaths in Rome marked a significant break in the traditional attitude towards dying, introducing a more active approach that would later develop into the practice of resuscitation medicine. Sudden Death explores how a new scientific interpretation of death and a new attitude towards dying first came into being, breaking free from the Hippocratic tradition, which regarded death as the obvious limit of physician’s capacity, and leading the way to a belief in the 'conquest of death' by medicine which remains in force to this day.


Atomistic Intuitions

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An English translation of the French philosopher’s sixth book, in which he seeks to develop a metaphysical context for modern atomistic science. French p ...

  • L'auteur : Gaston Bachelard
  • Editeur: SUNY Press
  • ISBN: 1438471297
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 152
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1115
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Détails: An English translation of the French philosopher’s sixth book, in which he seeks to develop a metaphysical context for modern atomistic science. French philosopher Gaston Bachelard (1884–1962) is best known in the English-speaking world for his work on poetics and the literary imagination, but much of his oeuvre is devoted to epistemology and the philosophy of science. Like Thomas Kuhn, whose work he anticipates by three decades, Bachelard examines the revolution taking place in scientific thought, but with particular attention to the philosophical implications of scientific practice. Atomistic Intuitions, published in 1933, considers past atomistic doctrines as a context for proposing a metaphysics for the scientific revolutions of the twentieth century. As his subtitle indicates, in this book Bachelard proposes a classification of atomistic intuitions as they are transformed over the course of history. More than a mere taxonomy, this exploration of atomistic doctrines since antiquity proves to be keenly pedagogical, leading to an enriched philosophical appreciation of modern subatomic physics and chemistry as sciences of axioms. Though focused on philosophy of science, the perspectives and intuitions Bachelard garnered through this work provide a unique and even essential key to understanding his extensive writings on the imagination. Roch C. Smith’s translation and explanatory notes will help to make this aspect of Bachelard’s thought accessible to a wider readership, particularly in such fields as aesthetics, literature, and history.


Matières incandescentes

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Oser penser par soi-même. Voilà le mot d’ordre des écrivains matérialistes des Lumières qui n’ont pas hésité à récuser l’existence de Dieu, ...

  • L'auteur : Pierre Berthiaume
  • Editeur: Les Presses de l\'Université de Montréal
  • ISBN: 2760634655
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Nombre de pages: 332
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1160
  • Telecharger: 1160
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Détails: Oser penser par soi-même. Voilà le mot d’ordre des écrivains matérialistes des Lumières qui n’ont pas hésité à récuser l’existence de Dieu, à mettre en jeu la réalité d’une « substance spirituelle » — oxymore absurde s’il en est — et à illustrer l’aliénation de ceux qui adhèrent à ce qui mène inévitablement au théofascisme. Si Dieu est une chimère et les religions des « folies humaines », la matière, en revanche, existe par elle-même, travaillée par des forces qui rendent compte du monde tel qu’il existe. Du « frayage » des particules élémentaires au transformisme, en passant par la théorie des probabilités, les thèses matérialistes ont pu éclore parce que des « philosophes » ont abandonné le paradigme mécaniste au profit d’une conception complexe de l’organisme, fondée sur l’irritabilité et la sensibilité du tissu animal. L’auteur de Matières incandescentes analyse les conditions d’apparition et de développement des problématiques matérialistes des Lumières (1650-1780) dans une synthèse impeccable qui souligne les liens qui se sont tissés entre réflexion philosophique et avancées scientifiques. Professeur émérite de l’Université d’Ottawa, Pierre Berthiaume est spécialiste de la littérature française du xviiie siècle et des relations de voyage en Amérique du Nord. Sa bibliographie comprend nombre d’ouvrages et d’articles qui couvrent les deux domaines de recherche.


Timaeus

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Timaeus Plato - The dialogue takes place the day after Socrates described his ideal state. In Plato's works such a discussion occurs in the Republic. Socra ...

  • L'auteur : Plato
  • Editeur: Phoemixx Classics Ebooks
  • ISBN: 398647000X
  • Genre: Science
  • Nombre de pages: 222
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1675
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Détails: Timaeus Plato - The dialogue takes place the day after Socrates described his ideal state. In Plato's works such a discussion occurs in the Republic. Socrates feels that his description of the ideal state wasn't sufficient for the purposes of entertainment and that "I would be glad to hear some account of it engaging in transactions with other states" (19b).Hermocrates wishes to oblige Socrates and mentions that Critias knows just the account (20b) to do so. Critias proceeds to tell the story of Solon's journey to Egypt where he hears the story of Atlantis, and how Athens used to be an ideal state that subsequently waged war against Atlantis (25a). Critias believes that he is getting ahead of himself, and mentions that Timaeus will tell part of the account from the origin of the universe to man.


B C, Before Computers: On Information Technology from Writing to the Age of Digital Data

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I found it a delight to read. The author is not trying to write yet another book on the history of computer developments but rather to show that those deve ...

  • L'auteur : Stephen Robertson
  • Editeur: Open Book Publishers
  • ISBN: 1800641044
  • Genre: Computers
  • Nombre de pages: 170
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 364
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Détails: I found it a delight to read. The author is not trying to write yet another book on the history of computer developments but rather to show that those developments rely on a long history of humans creating solutions to problems that arose as they became more and more sophisticated in their treatment of concepts of information and its manipulation. In many ways it resembles a work of philosophy more than a technical history, but relies on explaining that technical history to make his points. Michael R. Williams, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Calgary The idea that the digital age has revolutionized our day-to-day experience of the world is nothing new, and has been amply recognized by cultural historians. In contrast, Stephen Robertson’s BC: Before Computers is a work which questions the idea that the mid-twentieth century saw a single moment of rupture. It is about all the things that we had to learn, invent, and understand – all the ways we had to evolve our thinking – before we could enter the information technology revolution of the second half of the twentieth century. Its focus ranges from the beginnings of data processing, right back to such originary forms of human technology as the development of writing systems, gathering a whole history of revolutionary moments in the development of information technologies into a single, although not linear narrative. Treading the line between philosophy and technical history, Robertson draws on his extensive technical knowledge to produce a text which is both thought-provoking and accessible to a wide range of readers. The book is wide in scope, exploring the development of technologies in such diverse areas as cryptography, visual art and music, and the postal system. Through all this, it does not simply aim to tell the story of computer developments but to show that those developments rely on a long history of humans creating technologies for increasingly sophisticated methods of manipulating information. Through a clear structure and engaging style, it brings together a wealth of informative and conceptual explorations into the history of human technologies, and avoids assumptions about any prior knowledge on the part of the reader. As such the expert and the general reader alike will find it of interest.


Sciences, techniques, pouvoirs et sociétés du XVe siècle au XVIIIe siècle

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Cet ouvrage prépare à la nouvelle question d'histoire moderne du capes et de l'agrégation d'histoire-géographie. Cet ouvrage vous propose : Des chapitr ...

  • L'auteur : Laurent-Henri Vignaud
  • Editeur: Dunod
  • ISBN: 2100756281
  • Genre: Education
  • Nombre de pages: 336
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1955
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Détails: Cet ouvrage prépare à la nouvelle question d'histoire moderne du capes et de l'agrégation d'histoire-géographie. Cet ouvrage vous propose : Des chapitres de cours qui abordent toutes les thématiques relatives à la question. Chaque chapitre est structuré comme un cours universitaire, mettant en avant les connaissances fondamentales, les problématiques et les exemples. Les méthodes des épreuves spécifiques au Capes et à l’Agrégation, avec des conseils très concrets et de nombreux sujets corrigés pour s’entraîner selon les exigences des jurys des concours. Un ensemble d’outils de travail : chronologie, lexique, index, notices biographiques, bibliographie commentée, etc.


Sieys: Political Writings

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Although it has long been recognised that Sieyès' What is the Third Estate?, translated for this edition by Michael Sonenscher, was the key text of the Fr ...

  • L'auteur : Emmanuel Sieyès,Michael Sonenscher
  • Editeur: Hackett Publishing
  • ISBN: 1603844155
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 256
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1285
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Détails: Although it has long been recognised that Sieyès' What is the Third Estate?, translated for this edition by Michael Sonenscher, was the key text of the French Revolution, only recently has Sieyès come to be seen as one of the central figures in the formation of modern liberalism. This timely edition, which also includes three other works Sieyès produced in 1789 -- his 'Essay on Privileges', 'Views of the Executive Means', and the text of his debate with Tom Paine -- will be of value to anyone interested in the origins and character of modern liberalism, the history and analysis of political thought, or the history of the French Revolution.


Early Modern Cartesianisms

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There is a general sense that the philosophy of Descartes was a dominant force in early modern thought. Since the work in the nineteenth century of French ...

  • L'auteur : Tad M. Schmaltz
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190495235
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Nombre de pages: 416
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 690
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Détails: There is a general sense that the philosophy of Descartes was a dominant force in early modern thought. Since the work in the nineteenth century of French historians of Cartesian philosophy, however, there has been no fully contextualized comparative examination of the various receptions of Descartes in different portions of early modern Europe. This study addresses the need for a more current understanding of these receptions by considering the different constructions of Descartes's thought that emerged in the Calvinist United Provinces (Netherlands) and Catholic France, the two main centers for early modern Cartesianism, during the period dating from the last decades of his life to the century or so following his death in 1650. It turns out that we must speak not of a single early modern Cartesianism rigidly defined in terms of Descartes's own authorial intentions, but rather of a loose collection of early modern Cartesianisms that involve a range of different positions on various sets of issues. Though more or less rooted in Descartes's somewhat open-ended views, these Cartesianisms evolved in different ways over time in response to different intellectual and social pressures. Chapters of this study are devoted to: the early modern Catholic and Calvinist condemnations of Descartes and the incompatible Cartesian responses to these; conflicting attitudes among early modern Cartesians toward ancient thought and modernity; competing early modern attempts to combine Descartes's views with those of Augustine; the different occasionalist accounts of causation within early modern Cartesianism; and the impact of various forms of early modern Cartesianism on both Dutch medicine and French physics.


Letters on England ( 英國書簡)

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A series of 24 Letters based on Voltaire's experiences living in England during the period 1722-34 which was first published in 1734. ...

  • L'auteur : Voltaire
  • Editeur: Hyweb Technology Co. Ltd.
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Foreign Language Study
  • Nombre de pages: 28
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 667
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Détails: A series of 24 Letters based on Voltaire's experiences living in England during the period 1722-34 which was first published in 1734.


Pierre Bayle

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...

  • L'auteur : Elisabeth Labrousse
  • Editeur: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401035989
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 639
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 762
  • Telecharger: 762
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Détails:


The Scientific Revolution

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“There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it.” With this provocative and apparently paradoxical claim, Steven Sha ...

  • L'auteur : Steven Shapin
  • Editeur: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022639848X
  • Genre: Science
  • Nombre de pages: 256
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1580
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Détails: “There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it.” With this provocative and apparently paradoxical claim, Steven Shapin begins his bold, vibrant exploration of the origins of the modern scientific worldview, now updated with a new bibliographic essay featuring the latest scholarship. “An excellent book.”—Anthony Gottlieb, New York Times Book Review “Timely and highly readable. . . . A book which every scientist curious about our predecessors should read.”—Trevor Pinch, New Scientist “Shapin's account is informed, nuanced, and articulated with clarity. . . . This is not to attack or devalue science but to reveal its richness as the human endeavor that it most surely is. . . . Shapin's book is an impressive achievement.”—David C. Lindberg, Science “It's hard to believe that there could be a more accessible, informed or concise account. . . . The Scientific Revolution should be a set text in all the disciplines. And in all the indisciplines, too.”—Adam Phillips, London Review of Books


Anamnèsis (origines, perspectives, index)

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Une collection de référence sur l'histoire du christianisme. Ce tome 14 a été voulu et annoncé dès le début. La direction en a été confiée à F. ...

  • L'auteur : Jean-Marie Mayeur,Luce Pietri,André Vauchez,Marc Venard,François Laplanche
  • Editeur: Fleurus
  • ISBN: 2718907363
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 756
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1908
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Détails: Une collection de référence sur l'histoire du christianisme. Ce tome 14 a été voulu et annoncé dès le début. La direction en a été confiée à F. Laplanche, déjà collaborateur des tomes 8 et 9. Loin de penser à compléter, encore moins à corriger in fine le contenu des treize tomes, on imagina ce qu'il y aurait alors d'opportun à doter la façade de l'édifice des signaux que le caractère exceptionnel de l'entreprise appelait comme de soi. À l'instar d'une symphonie, il fallait un finale. D'où le titre : Anamnèsis. Ce terme grec dit à la fois la synthèse et l'élévation des informations proposées par la bonne centaine d'historiens signataires des treize tomes. "Faire l'anamnèse", c'est déplacer à l'infini les limites, celles qui tiennent au cadre des origines et aux contingences du temps. C'est donc ouvrir la science historique à l'espace. Ce faisant, c'est porter un regard sur l'au-delà de l'histoire, et tirer modestement les leçons nobles de celle-ci. Trois parties se succèdent dans cet ouvrage : - Un écho diversifié mais raisonné de la somme historiographique des treize tomes. - Un tableau de la société antique au temps de Jésus de Nazareth. - Un Index thématique de l'ensemble de la publication, avec si besoin des éléments du lexique, que l'on doit entièrement à F. Laplanche.


Regulae Ad Directionem Ingenii

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Exactly four hundred years after the birth of René Descartes (1596-1650), the present volume now makes available, for the first time in a bilingual, philo ...

  • L'auteur : René Descartes
  • Editeur: Rodopi
  • ISBN: 9789042001343
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 278
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 505
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Détails: Exactly four hundred years after the birth of René Descartes (1596-1650), the present volume now makes available, for the first time in a bilingual, philosophical edition prepared especially for English-speaking readers, his Regulae ad directionem ingenii / Rules for the Direction of the Natural Intelligence (1619-1628), the Cartesian treatise on method. This unique edition contains an improved version of the original Latin text, a new English translation intended to be as literal as possible and as liberal as necessary, an interpretive essay contextualizing the text historically, philologically, and philosophically, a com-prehensive index of Latin terms, a key glossary of English equivalents, and an extensive bibliography covering all aspects of Descartes' methodology. Stephen Gaukroger has shown, in his authoritative Descartes: An Intellectual Biography (1995), that one cannot understand Descartes without understanding the early Descartes. But one also cannot understand the early Descartes without understanding the Regulae / Rules. Nor can one understand the Regulae / Rules without understanding a philosophical edition thereof. Therein lies the justification for this project. The edition is intended, not only for students and teachers of philosophy as well as of related disciplines such as literary and cultural criticism, but also for anyone interested in seriously reflecting on the nature, expression, and exercise of human intelligence: What is it? How does it manifest itself? How does it function? How can one make the most of what one has of it? Is it equally distributed in all human beings? What is natural about it, and what, not? In the Regulae / Rules Descartes tries to provide, from a distinctively early modern perspective, answers both to these and to many other questions about what he refers to as ingenium.


Oxford Handbook of Epicurus and Epicureanism

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The ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus (340-271 BCE), though often despised for his materialism, hedonism, and denial of the immortality of the soul during ...

  • L'auteur : Philip Mitsis
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0197521991
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Nombre de pages: 688
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1729
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Détails: The ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus (340-271 BCE), though often despised for his materialism, hedonism, and denial of the immortality of the soul during many periods of history, has at the same time been a source of inspiration to figures as diverse as Vergil, Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, and Bentham. This volume offers authoritative discussions of all aspects of Epicurus's philosophy and then traces out some of its most important subsequent influences throughout the Western intellectual tradition. Such a detailed and comprehensive study of Epicureanism is especially timely given the tremendous current revival of interest in Epicurus and his rivals, the Stoics. The thirty-one contributions in this volume offer an unmatched resource for all those wishing to deepen their knowledge of Epicurus' powerful arguments about happiness, death, and the nature of the material world and our place in it. At the same time, his arguments are carefully placed in the context of ancient and subsequent disputes, thus offering readers the opportunity of measuring Epicurean arguments against a wide range of opponents--from Platonists, Aristotelians and Stoics, to Hegel and Nietzsche, and finally on to such important contemporary philosophers as Thomas Nagel and Bernard Williams. The volume offers separate and detailed discussions of two fascinating and ongoing sources of Epicurean arguments, the Herculaneum papyri and the inscription of Diogenes of Oenoanda. Our understanding of Epicureanism is continually being enriched by these new sources of evidence and the contributors to this volume have been able to make use of them in presenting the most current understanding of Epicurus's own views. By the same token, the second half of the volume is devoted to the extraordinary influence of Epicurean doctrines, often either neglected or misunderstood, in literature, political thinking, scientific innovation, personal conceptions of freedom and happiness, and in philosophy generally. Taken together, the contributions in this volume offer the most comprehensive and detailed account of Epicurus and Epicureanism available in English.


Histoire de l'Italie du XVe au XVIIIe siècle

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Foyer de création artistique et littéraire, creuset de nouvelles pratiques religieuses, terre de vestiges antiques, l’Italie est à l’époque moderne ...

  • L'auteur : Delphine Carrangeot,Emmanuelle Chapron,Hélène Chauvineau
  • Editeur: Armand Colin
  • ISBN: 2200612095
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 256
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1642
  • Telecharger: 1642
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Détails: Foyer de création artistique et littéraire, creuset de nouvelles pratiques religieuses, terre de vestiges antiques, l’Italie est à l’époque moderne une source d’inspiration et un objet d’admiration pour l’Europe entière. Elle devient alors à la fois la caisse de résonance de multiples ambitions étrangères et un laboratoire politique et social original, au moment où ses transformations économiques mettent en place un système de production dans lequel se décèlent déjà les contrastes entre le Nord et le Sud. Adoptant une perspective chronologique et thématique large, ce manuel entend proposer une grande synthèse sur quatre siècles d’histoire de l’Italie et souligner toute la richesse de cette période en présentant les plus récents renouvellements historiographiques. Il met en lumière la situation originale d’une Italie moderne qui, morcelée en de multiples États et inexistante sur le plan politique, voit pourtant se développer une identité géographique, symbolique et culturelle spécifique dont l’existence précède le projet d’un État unitaire.


Politics, Ontology and Knowledge in Spinoza

Telecharger pdf Politics, Ontology and Knowledge in Spinoza

"Alexandre Matheron is considered one of the most important interpreters of Spinoza's philosophy in the 20th century. These 20 essays, translated into Engl ...

  • L'auteur : Alexandre Matheron
  • Editeur: Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN: 1474440126
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Nombre de pages: 424
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1105
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Détails: "Alexandre Matheron is considered one of the most important interpreters of Spinoza's philosophy in the 20th century. These 20 essays, translated into English for the first time, focus on ontology, knowledge, politics and ethics in Spinoza, his predecessors and his contemporaries."--Publisher description.


The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy

Telecharger pdf The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy

The Mechanisation of Natural Philosophy is devoted to various aspects of the transformation of natural philosophy during the 16th and 17th centuries that i ...

  • L'auteur : Sophie Roux
  • Editeur: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400743459
  • Genre: Science
  • Nombre de pages: 342
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1197
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Détails: The Mechanisation of Natural Philosophy is devoted to various aspects of the transformation of natural philosophy during the 16th and 17th centuries that is usually described as mechanical philosophy . Drawing the border between the old Aristotelianism and the « new » mechanical philosophy faces historians with a delicate task, if not an impossible mission. There were many natural philosophers who actually crossed the border between the two worlds, and, inside each of these worlds, there was a vast spectrum of doctrines, arguments and intellectual practices. The expression mechanical philosophy is burdened with ambiguities. It may refer to at least three different enterprises: a description of nature in mathematical terms; the comparison of natural phenomena to existing or imaginary machines; the use in natural philosophy of mechanical analogies, i.e. analogies conceived in terms of matter and motion alone.However mechanical philosophy is defined, its ambition was greater than its real successes. There were few mathematisations of phenomena. The machines of mechanical philosophers were not only imaginary, but had little to do with the machines of mecanicians. In most of the natural sciences, analogies in terms of matter and motion alone failed to provide satisfactory accounts of phenomena.By the same authors: Mechanics and Natural Philosophy before the Scientific Revolution (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 254).


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