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The Global Findex Database 2017

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In 2011 the World Bank—with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation—launched the Global Findex database, the world\'s most comprehensive dat ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: World Bank Publications
  • ISBN: 1464812683
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 148
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1115
  • Telecharger: 1115
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Détails: In 2011 the World Bank—with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation—launched the Global Findex database, the world's most comprehensive data set on how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. Drawing on survey data collected in collaboration with Gallup, Inc., the Global Findex database covers more than 140 economies around the world. The initial survey round was followed by a second one in 2014 and by a third in 2017. Compiled using nationally representative surveys of more than 150,000 adults age 15 and above in over 140 economies, The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution includes updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services. It has additional data on the use of financial technology (or fintech), including the use of mobile phones and the Internet to conduct financial transactions. The data reveal opportunities to expand access to financial services among people who do not have an account—the unbanked—as well as to promote greater use of digital financial services among those who do have an account. The Global Findex database has become a mainstay of global efforts to promote financial inclusion. In addition to being widely cited by scholars and development practitioners, Global Findex data are used to track progress toward the World Bank goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020 and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The database, the full text of the report, and the underlying country-level data for all figures—along with the questionnaire, the survey methodology, and other relevant materials—are available at www.worldbank.org/globalfindex.


Dead Aid

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In the past fifty years, more than $1 trillion in development-related aid has been transferred from rich countries to Africa. Has this assistance improved ...

  • L'auteur : Dambisa Moyo
  • Editeur: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • ISBN: 9781429954259
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 208
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1100
  • Telecharger: 1100
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Détails: In the past fifty years, more than $1 trillion in development-related aid has been transferred from rich countries to Africa. Has this assistance improved the lives of Africans? No. In fact, across the continent, the recipients of this aid are not better off as a result of it, but worse—much worse. In Dead Aid, Dambisa Moyo describes the state of postwar development policy in Africa today and unflinchingly confronts one of the greatest myths of our time: that billions of dollars in aid sent from wealthy countries to developing African nations has helped to reduce poverty and increase growth. In fact, poverty levels continue to escalate and growth rates have steadily declined—and millions continue to suffer. Provocatively drawing a sharp contrast between African countries that have rejected the aid route and prospered and others that have become aid-dependent and seen poverty increase, Moyo illuminates the way in which overreliance on aid has trapped developing nations in a vicious circle of aid dependency, corruption, market distortion, and further poverty, leaving them with nothing but the "need" for more aid. Debunking the current model of international aid promoted by both Hollywood celebrities and policy makers, Moyo offers a bold new road map for financing development of the world's poorest countries that guarantees economic growth and a significant decline in poverty—without reliance on foreign aid or aid-related assistance. Dead Aid is an unsettling yet optimistic work, a powerful challenge to the assumptions and arguments that support a profoundly misguided development policy in Africa. And it is a clarion call to a new, more hopeful vision of how to address the desperate poverty that plagues millions.


African Economic Outlook 2015 Regional Development and Spatial Inclusion

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The African Economic Outlook 2015 analyses Africa’s growing role in the world economy and predicts the continent’s two-year prospects in crucial areas: ...

  • L'auteur : African Development Bank,OECD,United Nations Development Programme
  • Editeur: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 926423330X
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 352
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1958
  • Telecharger: 1958
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Détails: The African Economic Outlook 2015 analyses Africa’s growing role in the world economy and predicts the continent’s two-year prospects in crucial areas: macroeconomics, financing, trade policies and regional integration, human development, and governance.


Mitigating Inequality

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As colleges and universities extend academic programs abroad, develop internationally mixed research teams and create international curricular initiatives, ...

  • L'auteur : ,
  • Editeur: Emerald Group Publishing
  • ISBN: 178560290X
  • Genre: Education
  • Nombre de pages: 360
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 881
  • Telecharger: 881
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Détails: As colleges and universities extend academic programs abroad, develop internationally mixed research teams and create international curricular initiatives, it is essential to ensure that access to a high quality education remains a key component of the research and policy agenda transnationally.


The Dry Forests and Woodlands of Africa

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The dry forests and woodlands of Sub-Saharan Africa are major ecosystems, with a broad range of strong economic and cultural incentives for keeping them in ...

  • L'auteur : Emmanuel N. Chidumayo,Davison J. Gumbo
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136531378
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Nombre de pages: 304
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1886
  • Telecharger: 1886
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Détails: The dry forests and woodlands of Sub-Saharan Africa are major ecosystems, with a broad range of strong economic and cultural incentives for keeping them intact. However, few people are aware of their importance, compared to tropical rainforests, despite them being home to more than half of the continent's population. This unique book brings together scientific knowledge on this topic from East, West, and Southern Africa and describes the relationships between forests, woodlands, people and their livelihoods. Dry forest is defined as vegetation dominated by woody plants, primarily trees, the canopy of which covers more than 10 per cent of the ground surface, occurring in climates with a dry season of three months or more. This broad definition - wider than those used by many authors - incorporates vegetation types commonly termed woodland, shrubland, thicket, savanna, wooded grassland, as well as dry forest in its strict sense. The book provides a comparative analysis of management experiences from the different geographic regions, emphasizing the need to balance the utilization of dry forests and woodland products between current and future human needs. Further, the book explores the techniques and strategies that can be deployed to improve the management of African dry forests and woodlands for the benefit of all, but more importantly, the communities that live off these vegetation formations. Thus, the book lays a foundation for improving the management of dry forests and woodlands for the wide range of products and services they provide.


The Bloomsbury Handbook of the Internationalization of Higher Education in the Global South

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This Handbook covers a wide range of historical perspectives, realities, research and practice of internationalization of higher education (IHE) in the glo ...

  • L'auteur : Juliet Thondhlana,Evelyn Chiyevo Garwe,Hans de Wit,Jocelyne Gacel-Ávila,Futao Huang,Wondwosen Tamrat
  • Editeur: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1350139262
  • Genre: Education
  • Nombre de pages: 664
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1551
  • Telecharger: 1551
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Détails: This Handbook covers a wide range of historical perspectives, realities, research and practice of internationalization of higher education (IHE) in the global south and makes comparisons to IHE issues in the global north. Drawing on the expertise of 32 academics and policy makers based in and originating from four key regions of focus: Sub-Saharan Africa; North Africa and the Middle East; Asia Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean. Across 24 chapters the editors and contributors provide a diverse and unparalleled expose of the status and future aspirations of institutions and nations in relation to IHE. This is the first comprehensive analysis of this growing field and expands the scope of research in the field of comparative and international education in terms of theory and policy development. Includes 36 chapters written by: Hadiza Kere Abdulrahman, Salem Abodher, Giovanni Anzola-Pardo, Aref Al Attari, Norzaini Azman, Teklu Abate Bekele, Abdellah Benahnia, Andrés Bernasconi, Daniela Craciun, Hans de Wit, Futao Huang, Jocelyne Gacel-Ávila, Evelyn Chiyevo Garwe, Javier González, Gifty Oforiwaa Gyamera, Xiao HAN, Mohamed Salah Harzallah, Bola Ibrahim, Annette Insanally, Sunwoong Kim, Aliya Kuzhabekov, Kamel Mansi, Simon McGrath, Francisco Marmolejo, Georgiana Mihut, Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Ibrahim Ogachi Oanda, Bandele Olusola Oyewole, Rakgadi Phatlane, Francisca Puyol, Laura E. Rumbley, Chika T Sehoole, Wenqin SHEN, Luz Inmaculada Madera Soriano, Wondwosen Tamrat, Juliet Thondhlana, Julie Vardhan, Chang Da Wan, Anthony Welch, Ayenachew A. Woldegiyorgis, Renée Zicman.


Understanding New Security Threats

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This textbook examines non-traditional forms of security and expands the notion of security to include non-state actors and non-human actors. Proposing an ...

  • L'auteur : Michel Gueldry,Gigi Gokcek,Lui Hebron
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351590936
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 254
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1485
  • Telecharger: 1485
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Détails: This textbook examines non-traditional forms of security and expands the notion of security to include non-state actors and non-human actors. Proposing an expansive view of non-traditional forms of security that go beyond traditionally recognized issues of threats to state and national territory, this new textbook rests on the following premises: traditional state-centered threats, such as nuclear proliferation and espionage, remain a concern; old and new threats combine and create interlocking puzzles—a feature of wicked problems and wicked messes; because of the global erosion of borders, new developments of unconventional insecurity interact in ways that frustrate traditional conceptual definitions, conceptual maps, and national policies; unconventional security challenges which have traditionally been seen as "low politics" or "soft" issues are now being recognized as "hard security" challenges in the twenty-first century; many of the so-called "new" threats detailed here are in fact very old: diseases, gender violence, food insecurity, under-development, and crime are all traditional security threats, but deeply modified today by globalization. The chapters offer local and global examples and engage with various theoretical approaches to help readers see the bigger picture. Solutions are also suggested to these problems. Each chapter contains discussion questions to help readers understand the key points and facilitate class discussion. This book will be of great interest to students of international security studies, human security, global politics, and international relations.


World Social Report 2020

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This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urba ...

  • L'auteur : Department of Economic and Social Affairs
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 9210043677
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Nombre de pages: 216
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1225
  • Telecharger: 1225
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Détails: This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.


UN Peacekeeping Doctrine in a New Era

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This edited volume offers a thorough review of peacekeeping theory and reality in contemporary contexts, and aligns the two to help inform practice. Recent ...

  • L'auteur : Cedric de Coning,Chiyuki Aoi,John Karlsrud
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1315396920
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 344
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1938
  • Telecharger: 1938
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Détails: This edited volume offers a thorough review of peacekeeping theory and reality in contemporary contexts, and aligns the two to help inform practice. Recent UN peacekeeping operations have challenged the traditional peacekeeping principles of consent, impartiality and the minimum use of force. The pace and scope of these changes have now reached a tipping point, as the new mandates are fundamentally challenging the continued validity of the UN peacekeeping’s core principles and identity. In response the volume analyses the growing gap between these actual practices and existing UN peacekeeping doctrine, exploring how it undermines the effectiveness of UN operations, and endangers lives, arguing that a common doctrine is a critical starting point for effective multi-national operations. In order to determine the degree to which this general principle applies to the current state of UN peacekeeping, this book: Provides a review of conceptual and doctrinal developments in UN peacekeeping operations through a historical perspective Examines the debate related to peace operations doctrine and concepts among key Member States Focuses on the actual practice of peacekeeping by conducting case studies of several UN peacekeeping missions in order to identify gaps between practice and doctrine Critically analyses gaps between emerging peacekeeping practice and existing doctrine Recommends that the UN moves beyond the peacekeeping principles and doctrine of the past Combining empirical case-based studies on UN peace operations, with studies on the views and policies of key UN Security Council members that generate these mandates, and views of key contributors of UN peacekeepers, this volume will be of great use to policy-makers; UN officials and peace operations practitioners; and academics working on peace and conflict/security studies, international organizations and conflict management.


The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019

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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World gives updates on the prevalence of undernourishment globally and the absolute number of undernourishe ...

  • L'auteur : Food and Agriculture Organization
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 9210043634
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Nombre de pages: 236
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1361
  • Telecharger: 1361
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Détails: The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World gives updates on the prevalence of undernourishment globally and the absolute number of undernourished, as well as the latest estimates for a number of global nutrition targets. This latest edition looks at the role of economic slowdowns and downturns in the rise of hunger and makes policy recommendations to safeguard food security and nutrition worldwide.


Government at a Glance 2019

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Government at a Glance provides reliable, internationally comparative data on government activities and their results in OECD countries. Where possible, it ...

  • L'auteur : OECD
  • Editeur: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264600817
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 214
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 469
  • Telecharger: 469
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Détails: Government at a Glance provides reliable, internationally comparative data on government activities and their results in OECD countries. Where possible, it also reports data for Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. In many public governance areas, it is the only available source of data. It includes input, process, output and outcome indicators as well as contextual information for each country. The 2019 edition includes input indicators on public finance and employment; while processes include data on institutions, budgeting practices and procedures, human resources management, regulatory government, public procurement and digital government and open data.


Drugs and Social Context

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This book goes beyond the traditional approaches to drug use and discusses the issue from a societal perspective, integrating contributions from different ...

  • L'auteur : Telmo Mota Ronzani
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319724460
  • Genre: Medical
  • Nombre de pages: 114
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1170
  • Telecharger: 1170
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Détails: This book goes beyond the traditional approaches to drug use and discusses the issue from a societal perspective, integrating contributions from different disciplines such as psychology, public health, anthropology, law, public policies and sociology to address specifically the social aspects of the phenomenon. Given its complexity, drug use demands a multidisciplinary approach from many different perspectives, but despite the vast literature about the topic, the majority of the books are restricted either to a purely medical perspective (focused mainly on treatment techniques) or to a criminological perspective (focused mainly on drug trafficking and organized crime). The social approach adopted in this volume challenges this dichotomy and analyzes both the social contexts to which drug use is related and the social and political consequences of the attitudes and policies adopted by governments and other social groups towards drug users, addressing topics such as: Drugs and poverty Drugs and gender Drugs and race Drugs and territory Stigmatization of drug use Prohibitionism Given its broad and innovative approach, Drugs and Social Context - Social Perspectives on the Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs will be of interest for researchers, clinicians and other health professionals, since the study of the social aspects of drug use is central to everyone who deals with the issue.


Políticas e sistema de saúde no Brasil

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Como desconhecer o que é a política de saúde, o que é o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), os determinantes sociais, as condições de saúde e as desigua ...

  • L'auteur : Lígia Giovanella,Sarah Escorel,Lenaura de Vasconcelos Costa Lobato,José de Carvalho Noronha,Antonio Ivo de Carvalho
  • Editeur: SciELO - Editora FIOCRUZ
  • ISBN: 857541349X
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Nombre de pages: 1112
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 606
  • Telecharger: 606
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Détails: Como desconhecer o que é a política de saúde, o que é o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), os determinantes sociais, as condições de saúde e as desigualdades do acesso no Brasil? Esta obra consolida o conhecimento crítico sobre o sistema de saúde brasileiro produzido ao longo dos últimos trinta anos. Conhecimento militante na defesa do direito universal à saúde e do acesso aos serviços de um sistema nacional de saúde de qualidade para todos e de políticas de saúde que promovam a redução das desigualdades sociais. Um livro didático e de referência que inclui os eixos de análise individual/coletivo, clínico/epidemiológico e público/privado, além de congregar autores com experiência na gestão de serviços e do próprio sistema, nos três níveis da federação. A construção do SUS há muito deixou de ser obra exclusiva de intelectuais capazes de ler em língua estrangeira. Temos ‘construtores’ que lêem na realidade concreta dos serviços e da gestão, e que participam ativamente do complexo processo de construção cotidiana da saúde.


World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020

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This is the United Nations definitive report on the state of the world economy, providing global and regional economic outlook for 2020 and 2021. Produced ...

  • L'auteur : United Nations
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 921358329X
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 236
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1684
  • Telecharger: 1684
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Détails: This is the United Nations definitive report on the state of the world economy, providing global and regional economic outlook for 2020 and 2021. Produced by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the five United Nations regional commissions, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, with contributions from the UN World Tourism Organization and other intergovernmental agencies.


Qualities of Education in a Globalised World

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In a growing revisionist tradition, comparative educational scholars challenge conventional assumptions about quality education as a singular undertaking d ...

  • L'auteur : Diane Brook Napier
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 9462096503
  • Genre: Education
  • Nombre de pages: 206
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 698
  • Telecharger: 698
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Détails: In a growing revisionist tradition, comparative educational scholars challenge conventional assumptions about quality education as a singular undertaking dominated by standardised assessments and globalisation influences. The contributors to this volume illustrate the complexities and global dimensions of educational quality that emerged in their research. Several chapters critique educational reforms employing assessments aligned to global standards and large scale assessments, revealing how considerations of contextual factors, internal needs and local traditions are essential for developing a quality curriculum or for overhauling a national education system. Most chapters interrogate the uses and misuses of standardised assessment results. The contributors reveal the importance of asking critical questions about quality education: how to access it and for what purposes; what contextual and cultural factors are important; what implementation issues and local-level realities must be considered for true understanding of standardized assessment results; what content, skills and values are necessary and desirable ingredients; what roles teachers and administrators play; and what benefits accrue in terms of outcomes for employment and labor market needs or for achieving autonomy and stakeholder participation. Critiques of narrow interpretations of standardised assessment data contrast with research-based evidence that participation in large scale assessments such as PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS can indeed be beneficial to identify needed reform refinements and implementation shortcomings. Specific country cases include Brazil, Canada, the United States, Spain, Portugal, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, and the Philippines. Other chapters provide insights on quality education issues worldwide. The volume offers readers a panorama of views on the diversity of paths to quality education.


The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy

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Brazil is a globally vital but troubled economy. This volume offers comprehensive insight into Brazil's economic development, focusing on its most salient ...

  • L'auteur : Edmund Amann,Carlos Azzoni,Werner Baer
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190600004
  • Genre: Business & Economics
  • Nombre de pages: 864
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 923
  • Telecharger: 923
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Détails: Brazil is a globally vital but troubled economy. This volume offers comprehensive insight into Brazil's economic development, focusing on its most salient characteristics and analyzing its structural features across various dimensions. This innovative Oxford Handbook provides an understanding of the economy's evolution over time and highlights the implications of the past trajectory and decisions for current challenges and opportunities. The opening section covers the country's economic history, beginning with the colonial economy, through import-substitution, to the era of neoliberalism. Second, it analyses Brazil's broader place in the global economy, and considers the ways in which this role has changed, and is likely to change, over coming years. Particular attention is given to the productive sectors of Brazil's economy, for example manufacturing, agriculture, services, energy, and infrastructure. In addition to discussions of regional differences within Brazil, socio-economic dimensions are examined. These include income distribution, human capital, environmental issues, and health. Also included is a discussion of Brazil in the world economy, such as the increase in "South-South" cooperation and trade as well as foreign direct investment. Last but not least is a discussion of the role of the Brazilian state in the economy, whether through state enterprises, competition policy, or corruption.


DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA DO CERRADO E IMPACTO DA PRODUÇÃO DE BIOCOMBUSTÍVEIS

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Os biocombustíveis poderão ser uma alternativa ao uso de combustíveis derivados de petróleo. Fonte de energia pouco poluente, sua queima não produz ga ...

  • L'auteur : Geraldo Magella Obolari de Magalhães,José Galizia Tundisi
  • Editeur: Editora Appris
  • ISBN: 6586034396
  • Genre: Technology & Engineering
  • Nombre de pages: 139
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1516
  • Telecharger: 1516
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Détails: Os biocombustíveis poderão ser uma alternativa ao uso de combustíveis derivados de petróleo. Fonte de energia pouco poluente, sua queima não produz gases nocivos ao meio ambiente. Grandes petrolíferas investem milhões de dólares para pesquisar, desenvolver e produzir energias alternativas e biocombustíveis, sem, entretanto, levar em consideração o principal insumo para a sua produção: a água, que é utilizada desde o plantio até a bomba do combustível, em grande escala. O interesse econômico-mercantil poderá se sobrepor ao direito humano, a ponto de a água potável ser transformada na commodity do século XXI?


Global and Regional Leadership of BRICS Countries

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This book presents a systematic collation of the regional and global dimensions of the leadership role of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and ...

  • L'auteur : Stephen Kingah,Cintia Quiliconi
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319229729
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 281
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1641
  • Telecharger: 1641
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Détails: This book presents a systematic collation of the regional and global dimensions of the leadership role of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). It analyses the rising regional and global leadership of BRICS, using specific benchmarks to gauge the nature of this leadership. The elements examined include willingness to lead, the capacity to do as much, and the degree to which the given actor is accepted as a leader both within and beyond its region. The chapters in the book capture the nature of trends in regional and global leadership within the contexts of a changing international order. It is taken for granted that Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa are now engineering a unique pool of governance that is seeking alternatives to the current order of global economic and political affairs. The fact that these countries have jointly decided to forge ahead with the BRICS constellation of states that is now taking consequential decisions such as the creation of the BRICS’ New Development Bank, is not to be treated lightly. In this book the majority of papers take a step back and systematically analyse the real state of the leadership that is provided by the BRICS on a litany of regionally and globally relevant issues. While no one doubts the fact that these countries have the capacity to provide leadership especially in their various regions on many issues, what remains moot is whether they are willing and capable to do so at the global level. Even in those cases where there is the willingness and capacity, the book argues that the acceptance of such leadership by potential followers is not always a given.


OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Brazil 2015

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This report is the first OECD review of Brazil’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with ...

  • L'auteur : OECD
  • Editeur: OECD Publishing
  • ISBN: 9264240098
  • Genre: ,
  • Nombre de pages: 264
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 325
  • Telecharger: 325
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Détails: This report is the first OECD review of Brazil’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and protected areas.


Human Development Report 2019

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Inequalities in human development are a roadblock to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. They are not just about disparities in income a ...

  • L'auteur : United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
  • Editeur: United Nations
  • ISBN: 9213582900
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 366
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1471
  • Telecharger: 1471
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Détails: Inequalities in human development are a roadblock to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. They are not just about disparities in income and wealth. They cannot be accounted for simply by using summary measures of inequality that focus on a single dimension. And they will shape the prospects of people that may live to see the 22nd century. The 2019 Report explores inequalities in human development by going beyond income, beyond averages and beyond today. It asks what forms of inequality matter and what drives them, recognizing that pernicious inequalities are generally better thought of as a symptom of broader problems in a society and economy. It also asks what policies can tackle those drivers—policies that can simultaneously help nations to grow their economies, improve human development and reduce inequality.


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