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The Mystery of Numbers

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Why is the number seven lucky--even holy--in almost every culture? Why do we speak of the four corners of the earth? Why do cats have nine lives (except in ...

  • L'auteur : Annemarie Schimmel
  • Editeur: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199879850
  • Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
  • Nombre de pages: 336
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1858
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Détails: Why is the number seven lucky--even holy--in almost every culture? Why do we speak of the four corners of the earth? Why do cats have nine lives (except in Iran, where they have seven)? From literature to folklore to private superstitions, numbers play a conspicuous role in our daily lives. But in this fascinating book, Annemarie Schimmel shows that numbers have been filled with mystery and meaning since the earliest times, and across every society. In The Mystery of Numbers Annemarie Schimmel conducts an illuminating tour of the mysteries attributed to numbers over the centuries. She begins with an informative and often surprising introduction to the origins of number systems: pre-Roman Europeans, for example, may have had one based on twenty, not ten (as suggested by the English word "score" and the French word for 80, quatrevingt --four times twenty), while the Mayans had a system more sophisticated than our own. Schimmel also reveals how our fascination with numbers has led to a rich cross-fertilization of mathematical knowledge: "Arabic" numerals, for instance, were picked up by Europe from the Arabs, who had earlier adopted them from Indian sources ("Algorithm" and "algebra" are corruptions of the Arabic author and title names of a mathematical text prized in medieval Europe). But the heart of the book is an engrossing guide to the symbolism of numbers. Number symbolism, she shows, has deep roots in Western culture, from the philosophy of the Pythagoreans and Platonists, to the religious mysticism of the Cabala and the Islamic Brethren of Purity, to Kepler's belief that the laws of planetary motion should be mathematically elegant, to the unlucky thirteen. After exploring the sources of number symbolism, Schimmel examines individual numbers ranging from one to ten thousand, discussing the meanings they have had for Judaic, Christian, and Islamic traditions, with examples from Indian, Chinese, and Native American cultures as well. Two, for instance, has widely been seen as a number of contradiction and polarity, a number of discord and antithesis. And six, according to ancient and neo-platonic thinking, is the most perfect number because it is both the sum and the product of its parts (1+2+3=6 and 1x2x3=6). Using examples ranging from the Bible to the Mayans to Shakespeare, she shows how numbers have been considered feminine and masculine, holy and evil, lucky and unlucky. A highly respected scholar of Islamic culture, Annemarie Schimmel draws on her vast knowledge to paint a rich, cross-cultural portrait of the many meanings of numbers. Engaging and accessible, her account uncovers the roots of a phenomenon we all feel every Friday the thirteenth.


Machiavelli, Islam and the East

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This volume provides the first survey of the unexplored connections between Machiavelli’s work and the Islamic world, running from the Arabic roots of Th ...

  • L'auteur : Lucio Biasiori,Giuseppe Marcocci
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319539493
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 264
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1505
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Détails: This volume provides the first survey of the unexplored connections between Machiavelli’s work and the Islamic world, running from the Arabic roots of The Prince to its first translations into Ottoman Turkish and Arabic. It investigates comparative descriptions of non-European peoples, Renaissance representations of Muḥammad and the Ottoman military discipline, a Jesuit treatise in Persian for a Mughal emperor, peculiar readers from Brazil to India, and the parallel lives of Machiavelli and the bureaucrat Celālzāde Muṣṭafá. Ten distinguished scholars analyse the backgrounds, circulation and reception of Machiavelli’s writings, focusing on many aspects of the mutual exchange of political theories and grammars between East and West. A significant contribution to attempts by current scholarship to challenge any rigid separation within Eurasia, this volume restores a sense of the global spreading of books, ideas and men in the past.


Islam and Muslim Resistance to Modernity in Turkey

Telecharger pdf Islam and Muslim Resistance to Modernity in Turkey

This book explores how traditional Sunni Muslim conceptions have informed or shaped Islamization strategies in contemporary Turkey. In particular, the auth ...

  • L'auteur : Gokhan Bacik
  • Editeur: Springer Nature
  • ISBN: 3030259013
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 236
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1879
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Détails: This book explores how traditional Sunni Muslim conceptions have informed or shaped Islamization strategies in contemporary Turkey. In particular, the author proposes to examine the teaching curriculum of the Ministry of Education, which oversees Turkish public religious education; the activities and teachings of Diyanet, the constitutional organ responsible for managing all religious affairs; and the ideas and activities of three Muslim religious groups currently operating in Turkey. The monograph explains how the interpretation and practice of Islam affects various situations in the Muslim world and analyzes the concept of nature in Islam, which has been an indivisible component of Islamic tradition since the beginning.


Chaos, Complexity and Leadership 2017

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The proceedings of the 2017 Symposium on Chaos, Complexity and Leadership illuminate current research results and academic work from the fields of physics, ...

  • L'auteur : Şefika Şule Erçetin,Nihan Potas
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319898752
  • Genre: Social Science
  • Nombre de pages: 725
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1029
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Détails: The proceedings of the 2017 Symposium on Chaos, Complexity and Leadership illuminate current research results and academic work from the fields of physics, mathematics, education, economics, as well as management and social sciences. The text explores chaotic and complex systems, as well as chaos and complexity theory in view of their applicability to management and leadership. This proceedings explores non-linearity as well as data-modelling and simulation in order to uncover new approaches and perspectives. Effort will not be spared in bringing theory into practice while exploring leadership and management-laden concepts. This book will cover the analysis of different chaotic developments from different fields within the concepts of chaos and complexity theory. Researchers and students in the field will find answers to questions surrounding these intertwined and compelling fields.


Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia

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This book examines the Russian conquest of the ancient Central Asian khanates of Bukhara and Khiva in the 1860s and 1870s, and the relationship between Rus ...

  • L'auteur : Seymour Becker
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134335822
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 440
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 693
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Détails: This book examines the Russian conquest of the ancient Central Asian khanates of Bukhara and Khiva in the 1860s and 1870s, and the relationship between Russia and the territories until their extinction as political entities in 1924. It shows how Russia's approach developed from one of non-intervention, with the primary aim of preventing British expansion from India into the region, to one of increasing intervention as trade and Russian settlement grew. It goes on to discuss the role of Bukhara and Khiva in the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and how the region was fundamentally changed following the Bolshevik conquest in 1919-20. The book is a re-issue of a highly regarded classic originally published in 1968 and out of print for some years. The new version includes a new introduction, some corrections of errors, and a survey of new work undertaken since first publication.


The Revolt of 1916 in Russian Central Asia

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Essential reading for historians, political scientists, and policymakers, this reissued edition is being published to coincide with the centennial observat ...

  • L'auteur : Edward Dennis Sokol
  • Editeur: JHU Press
  • ISBN: 1421420511
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 208
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 485
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Détails: Essential reading for historians, political scientists, and policymakers, this reissued edition is being published to coincide with the centennial observation of the genocide.


Eastern Mediterranean Port Cities

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This book surveys the historical development, current problems and likely prospects for Eastern Mediterranean port cities, providing contributions from sch ...

  • L'auteur : Filiz Yenişehirlioğlu,Eyüp Özveren,Tülin Selvi Ünlü
  • Editeur: Springer
  • ISBN: 331993662X
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 259
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1284
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Détails: This book surveys the historical development, current problems and likely prospects for Eastern Mediterranean port cities, providing contributions from scholars from various disciplines, such as archaeologists, historians, economists, urban planners and architects. By studying the city of Mersin and the surrounding area, it offers insights into the changing nature of Eastern Mediterranean port cities. The first part of the book discusses the approaches to the Mediterranean World, from the late prehistory to the present, and questions the implications of the values inherited from the past for a sustainable future. The second part then examines the social structure of Eastern Mediterranean port cities presenting an in-depth study of different ethnic groups and communities. In the third part the changing physical structure of these cities is elucidated from the perspectives of archaeology, architecture, and urban planning. The last part focuses on urban memory through a detailed study based on live recordings of original accounts by the local people. The book benefits prospective researchers in the field of Mediterranean studies, archaeology, history, economic history, architecture and urban planning.


Origins of the Ottoman Empire, The

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In The Origins of the Ottoman Empire, Köprülü criticized as unscientific the prevailing Western explanations of the origins of the Ottoman Empire. Leise ...

  • L'auteur : Mehmet Fuat K?pr?l?
  • Editeur: SUNY Press
  • ISBN: 1438410433
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 155
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1133
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Détails: In The Origins of the Ottoman Empire, Köprülü criticized as unscientific the prevailing Western explanations of the origins of the Ottoman Empire. Leiser’s translation from the Turkish reveals Köprülü’s modern historiographic method, and his unique contribution in describing the nature of the relevant Muslim sources. Using these and other references, Köprülü gave the first broad comprehensive account—political, religious, social, and economic—of the Turkish history of Anatolia in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and outlined the major factors that led to the rise of the Ottomans.


Politics of Turkish Democracy, The

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The history of Turkey's difficult transition to a multi-party political system. ...

  • L'auteur : John M. VanderLippe
  • Editeur: SUNY Press
  • ISBN: 0791483371
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 282
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1761
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Détails: The history of Turkey's difficult transition to a multi-party political system.


From Religious Empires to Secular States

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In the 1920s and the 1930s, Turkey, Iran and Russia vehemently pursued state-secularizing reforms, but adopted different strategies in doing so. But why do ...

  • L'auteur : Birol Başkan
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317802047
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 202
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1027
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Détails: In the 1920s and the 1930s, Turkey, Iran and Russia vehemently pursued state-secularizing reforms, but adopted different strategies in doing so. But why do states follow different secularizing strategies? The literature has already shattered the illusion that secularization of the state has been a unilinear, homogeneous and universal process, and has convincingly shown that secularization of the state has unfolded along different paths. Much, however, remains to be uncovered. This book provides an in-depth comparative historical analysis of state secularization in three major Eurasian countries: Turkey, Iran and Russia. To capture the aforementioned variation in state secularization across three countries that have been hitherto analyzed as separate studies, Birol Başkan adopts three modes of state secularization: accommodationism, separationism and eradicationism. Focusing thematically on the changing relations between the state and religious institutions, Başkan brings together a host of factors, historical, strategic and structural, to account for why Turkey adopted accommodationism, Iran separationism and Russia eradicationism. In doing so, he expertly demonstrates that each secularization strategy was a rational response to the strategic context the reformers found themselves in.


The Great and Holy War

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The Great and Holy War offers the first look at how religion created and prolonged the First World War, and the lasting impact it had on Christianity and w ...

  • L'auteur : Philip Jenkins
  • Editeur: Lion Books
  • ISBN: 0745956742
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 448
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 738
  • Telecharger: 738
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Détails: The Great and Holy War offers the first look at how religion created and prolonged the First World War, and the lasting impact it had on Christianity and world religions more extensively in the century that followed. The war was fought by the world's leading Christian nations, who presented the conflict as a holy war. A steady stream of patriotic and militaristic rhetoric was served to an unprecedented audience, using language that spoke of holy war and crusade, of apocalypse and Armageddon. But this rhetoric was not mere state propaganda. Philip Jenkins reveals how the widespread belief in angels, apparitions, and the supernatural, was a driving force throughout the war and shaped all three of the Abrahamic religions - Christianity, Judaism, and Islam - paving the way for modern views of religion and violence. The disappointed hopes and moral compromises that followed the war also shaped the political climate of the rest of the century, giving rise to such phenomena as Nazism, totalitarianism, and communism. Connecting remarkable incidents and characters - from Karl Barth to Carl Jung, the Christmas Truce to the Armenian Genocide - Jenkins creates a powerful and persuasive narrative that brings together global politics, history, and spiritual crisis. We cannot understand our present religious, political, and cultural climate without understanding the dramatic changes initiated by the First World War. The war created the world's religious map as we know it today.


THE PROPHETIC MEDICINE (ENGLISH)

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...

  • L'auteur : IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYA
  • Editeur: Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah دار الكتب العلمية
  • ISBN: 2745168630
  • Genre: Religion
  • Nombre de pages: 288
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1962
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Détails:


Globalization Dimensions & Impacts

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The concept of globalisation is essentially about the increasing economic, political, cultural and technological intergradation with increasing speed, dept ...

  • L'auteur : Evren Denktaş, Bengü Doğangün Yasa,Gülten Dursun,Sema Yılmaz Genç,Hilal Yıldız, Keremet Shaiymbetova,Figen Büyükakın,Zişan Kılıçkan,İsmail Şiriner, Keremet Shayimbetova,Murat Aydın,Mustafa Doğan,Nilay Etiler, Kuvvet Lordoğlu,Ayhan Orhan
  • Editeur: IJOPEC Publication
  • ISBN: 0956825699
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Nombre de pages: 224
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1022
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Détails: The concept of globalisation is essentially about the increasing economic, political, cultural and technological intergradation with increasing speed, depth and breadth. Globalisation has become a buzz word in many academic debates, espe- cially, amongst those who use the concept to describe the spread of global capi- talism, market, the declining role of the state, and globalisation of civil society. (Harvey, 2005; Harmon, 2009; Chomsky 1999; Saad-Filho and Johnston 2004). In short, Harvey defines neoliberalism as: . . . a theory of political, economic practices that proposes that human well-be- ing can best be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterized by strong private property rights, free markets and free trade. The role of the state is to create and preserve an institutional framework appropriate to such practices. The state has to guarantee, for example, the quality and integrity of money. It must also set up those military, defence, police and legal structures and func- tions required to secure private property rights and to guarantee, by force if need be, the proper functioning of markets. Furthermore, if markets do not exist (in areas such as land, water, education, health care, social security, or environmental pollution) then they must be created, by state action if neces- sary (Harvey 2005:2). This has become an all-encompassing term for differing economic and political projects. What essentially new liberalism has in common is that the state should be minimal, as the competition of the market will bring economic efficiency and choice. The crisis of capitalism in the late 1970s and 1980s has opened the gap for neoliberal ideas to have resonance as a solution to global capitalism. Despite their political, historical, geographical and economic differences, nearly every country in the world, especially, in the global south, has implemented neoliberal policies in some form. The policies have become an increasingly real alternative to over-come the predicament of the world economy. With the demise of Soviet ideology, the advocates of the free market liberalism in the world, particularly, in the USA, saw this as an opportunity to reassert their power globally. Hence, the globalisation of the world economy is claimed to ‘serve the great majority of the world’s people’, and it will liberate the poor countries be- cause they will have ‘free domestic and international trade and more open financial markets’ (Wade: 2004:38). At the core of globalisation lies the belief that a country must promote the pri- vate sector as the primary engine of its economic growth by shrinking the size of its state bureaucracy; increasing exports; privatising state-owned industries and utilities and deregulating capital markets (Freidman, 1999). The process that led to claim that the state, ‘that artefact of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries – has begun to crumble’ (Ohmea, 1995: 7). With the international system, the borders are no longer necessary, and the international commerce would become free from the cumbersome constraints of state interference. However, the reality after nearly three decades of globalisation have not been drastically different from much of the world, the international system has yet to witness universalization of democracy or wealth. In fact, ‘one of the consequences of globalisation appears to have been the poor growth and polarisation of wealth’ (Morady & Siriner, 2011). Whilst ‘the free market ideology that has dominated the public discourse as it puts emphasis on the dominant criterion of maximising profit through the private sec- tor’, a more fundamental question is, ‘whether the market will be able to provide all the social, economic and political needs of the world’s people’ (Morady & Siriner, 2011), when the “bare logic” of capitalism is pitted against the cultural values of hu- man experience (Castells, 2000). Globalisation, even if it’s intended to meet basic economic, political and social needs of ordinary people, it has failed to deliver in much of the world. Indeed, this is noticeable in the area of gender equality. Their opposition to the globalisation has also been considerable with different social movements such as ‘anti Capitalism’ and ‘anti war movement’ have challenged the neoliberal agenda around the world. They have demonstrated their resentment in the process of economic, political and social unevenness, inequality between poor and rich, men and women, and the power of international organisations. The organisation of the current book comprises different articles dealing with vari- ous domestic, regional, and global economics, political and social issues. This book is mainly focusing on Turkey, but different authors have used different frameworks with empirical studies. We hope to provide an assessment of globalisation and its impact within the international system. The first article by Evren Denktaş and Bengü Doğangün Yasa is an attempts to ana- lyse Karl Marx and Max Weber’s work of social classes and its role in the economy and society. The article will argue that the middle class continues to play vital eco- nomic and political role, even though there has significant changes since globaliza- tion, especially in the developing countries. The current economic complexity has become centre of attention for economic sociologists. Consequently, Karl Polanyi’s concept of “(Dis)embeddedness”. Gülten Dursun’s paper will argue that the capitalist mode of production and distribution is within the field of economic system. Hence, as Polanyi argues the economy is im- mersed in social relations, i.e., it is not outside of this or independent. Sema Yılmaz Genç will investigate Ibni Khaldun’s economic contribution and his relevance in the contemporary globalized world. It will demonstrate that even though his work was articulated seven centuries ago, it continues to influence the modern academic literatures. Hilal Yıldız and Keremet Shaiymbetova investigate the relationship between in- come inequality and economic growth through empirical studies of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) countries. Employing The Kuznets Curve they show in the latter stages of development, transition from agriculture towards industrialisation will lead to a change in the direction of income – inequality relation. In the first stage, with an increase in income, inequality will increase, but in the latter stages of industrialisation, with increasing income, the inequality level will decrease. Figen Büyükakın, focuses on credibility of Central Bank of Republic of Turkey to identify the importance of reliability in the effectiveness of monetary policy. In the event that macroeconomic dynamics are out of balance in an economy, monetary policies cannot provide sufficient confidence or control inflation. Therefore, pos- sessing credibility for policy makers is vital in order to solve problems. She assesses CBRT’s credible monetary policy strategy performance in Turkish Economy in the last decade. Zişan Kılıçarslan assesses the importance of inflation targeting strategy in the Turkish economy. Using the Chow and Quant-Andrews structural break tests, she determined that the inflation targeting strategy applied in Turkey since 2002 had caused a structural break on the determined basic macroeconomic variables such as the consumer price index, exchange rate basket, budget deficit/GDP ratio, cur- rent deficit/GDP ratio and GDP growth ratio. The inflation targeting strategy is used with the aim of creating sustainability and permanence in price stabilization while fighting against inflation in the1990’s. İsmail Şiriner and Keremet Shayimbetova demonstrate the impact of globalisation on the Great Financial Crisis of 2008 and the financial stability. By focusing on CBRT’s monetary policy approaches since the 2007 crisis, they argue that the fi- nancial stability of the system requires an effective monetary policy for the stability of the economy as a whole. Murat Aydın, looks at the role of state in local development in the period after glo- balization in Turkey. With the 2008 economic crises, expansion of service indus- tries, structural unemployment, and decentralization have increased the responsi- bility of local development agencies. The state has continued to be the major actor, but working alongside of the local agencies; they have been responsible to regulate and implement policies to suit the market. Mustafa Doğan also looks at the local development issue, yet assessing the role of ecomuseums in Turkey. Whilst the principles of sustainable local development are now widely implemented across the world, at the same time are protecting cultural and natural assets. The article will provide an overview on ecomuseums: that they are focused on a specific place or ‘territory’, and on the relationship between the population and their environment, culture and local history. He will argue that ecomuseums have been utilized as a major means of promoting sustainable de- velopment in many rural areas of the world by conserving natural, historical and sociocultural resources of a locality, whilst recognisıng a place’s potential to pro- vide low-level tourism and economic/social opportunities. The empirical work of the paper is based on ecomuseum and social-economic development in Boğatepe village, in the province of Kars in Turkey. One of the consequences of globalisation is migration and gender as it is becom- ing a major socioeconomic study. The feminisation of migration as defining the number of women at international labour migration, has been increasing in recent years. Nilay Etiler and Kuvvet Lordoğlu will assess the health problems of recent fe- male migrants. They will argue that women migrants, are mostly employed in jobs that are appropriate to their gender roles such as housework or childcare. Whilst, the health of migrants as a whole deteriorate because of poor living and working conditions, the female workers suffer more, especially in the area of mental health. Ayhan Orhan focuses on the property rights of natural Resources in a globalised world. He examines the rapid change of natural resource distribution in since the 1990’s, which has added a new dimension to the concept of property rights. Hence, he argues that natural resources and property rights could not be treated indepen- dently from Multi National Companies or the states. As a last contributor of this volume of globalization, Farhang Morady argues that Iran’s strategy to balance between the US on the one hand, and China, Russia and India on the other, was a failure. According his determinations, the end of the Cold War and the emergence of new independent republics in Central Asia offered Iran the opportunity to become a vital actor in the geopolitics of the region. Iran was seen as a possible corridor between Central Asia, the Persian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). Struggling against US policy of strategic isolation, Iran made concerted efforts to break out of it by cultivating closer ties with non-Western pow- ers. It used diplomacy, energy, and trade for the purpose of balancing its foreign re- lations. His paper will assess the strategic ambitions of Iran as a regional power and the degree of its success in combating Western imposed sanctions and the US mili- tary threat over the disputed nuclear programme. This ‘balancing against the West’ was the dominant approach during the Conservative presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the paper he figures out that it reflects a changed approach to serving Iran’s interest by working with, and not against, the West. Due to nuclear détente, growing strategic convergence with the US in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the American shift in emphasis to the Pacific, Iran has an iinvaluable opportunity to re-emerge as a crucial member in the Indian Ocean Region. We hope this addition of globalisation will provide some ideas to inspire academics and students not only to hat the world is facing, but some solutions as well.


History of Islam in German Thought

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This concise overview of the perception of Islam in eight of the most important German thinkers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries allows a new and ...

  • L'auteur : Ian Almond
  • Editeur: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135268886
  • Genre: History
  • Nombre de pages: 216
  • Langue: French/English
  • Vues: 1399
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Détails: This concise overview of the perception of Islam in eight of the most important German thinkers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries allows a new and fascinating investigation of how these thinkers, within their own bodies of work, often espoused contradicting ideas about Islam and their nearest Muslim neighbors. Exploring a variety of 'neat compartmentalizations' at work in the representations of Islam, as well as distinct vocabularies employed by these key intellectuals (theological, political, philological, poetic), Ian Almond parses these vocabularies to examine the importance of Islam in the very history of German thought. Almond further demonstrates the ways in which German philosophers such as Hegel, Kant, and Marx repeatedly ignored information about the Muslim world that did not harmonize with the particular landscapes they were trying to paint – a fact which in turn makes us reflect on what it means when a society possesses 'knowledge' of a foreign culture.